Skip to main content

Full text of "French market-gardening : including practical details of "intensive cultivation" for English growers"

See other formats





















ALTHOUGH  many  kinds  of  fruits  and  flowers,  and 
a  few  other  crops  like  Cucumbers,  Seakale,  Tomatoes, 
Rhubarb,  Mustard  and  Cress,  have  long  been  grown 
in  British  gardens  on  "  intensive  "  principles,  it  is 
somewhat  astonishing  that  the  early  production  of 
other  vegetables  and  salads  has  been  left  almost 
entirely  in  the  hands  of  the  French  market -gardeners 
around  Paris. 

Just  over  forty  years  ago,  Mr.  Robinson  was,  I 
believe,  the  first  to  call  the  attention  of  the  English- 
speaking  world  to  the  methods  employed  by  the 
Parisian  growers,  who  for  generations  past  have 
practised  the  art  of  raising  vegetables  and  salads  to 
perfection  during  the  worst  months  of  the  year.  In 
the  first  edition  of  his  admirable  volume  on  The 
Parks  and  Gardens  of  Paris,  he  wrote  :  "  We  have 
several  important  things  to  learn  from  the  French, 
and  not  the  least  among  these  is  the  winter  and  spring 
culture  of  salads — inasmuch  as  enormous  quantities 
of  these  are  sent  from  Paris  to  our  markets  during 
the  spring  months.  ...  By  the  adoption  of  the 
French  system  salads  may  be  grown  to  fully  as  great 
perfection  near  London  and  in  the  home  counties  as 
near  Paris.  The  fact  that  we  have  to  be  supported 
by  our  neighbours  with  articles  that  could  be  so  easily 



produced  in  this  country  is  almost  ridiculous.  It  is 
impossible  to  exaggerate  the  importance  of  this  culture 
for  a  nation  of  gardeners  like  the  British  ;  and  if  it 
were  the  only  hint  that  we  could  take  from  the  French 
cultivators  with  advantage,  it  would  be  well  worth 

Although  this  gospel  was  preached  so  long  ago,  but 
little  advance  in  the  art  of  intensive  gardening  has 
been  made  in  the  British  Islands  so  far  as  vegetables 
and  salads  are  concerned.  During  the  past  year  or 
two,  however,  a  keener  interest  has  been  awakened 
on  the  subject.  Not  only  has  the  horticultural  press 
devoted  considerable  attention  to  it,  but  the  daily 
papers  have  also  discussed  the  matter.  Among  these 
one  especially,  with  characteristic  enterprise,  has 
enthusiastically  praised  the  system,  and  has  almost 
made  one  believe  that  it  is  quite  a  simple  matter  to 
make  a  profit  of  £600  or  £700  per  annum  out  of  an 
acre  of  ground  cultivated  on  the  "  French  "  system. 

Perhaps  a  little  too  much  emphasis  has  been  laid 
upon  the  profits  to  be  derived  from  the  system,  and 
there  seems  to  be  an  impression  amongst  many  who 
possess  no  practical  experience  of  gardening  matters 
whatever  that  fortunes  are  to  be  made  easily  by 
growing  Carrots,  Cauliflowers,  Lettuces,  Radishes, 
Turnips,  etc.,  under  lights  or  cloches.  Many  French 
gardeners  have  no  doubt  reaped  golden  harvests  as  a 
result  of  their  industry,  foresight,  and  skill ;  but  they 
have  been  men  saturated  with  all  the  details  of  their 
profession  gained  entirely  by  experience. 

There  is  no  reason,  however,  why  the  British  gar- 
dener endowed  with  similar  energy,  skill,  and  good 
business  capacity  should  not  make  the  early  production 


of  vegetables  and  salads  a  remunerative  business,  pro- 
vided he  is  willing  to  do  what  his  French  neighbour  does. 

Many  excellent  gardeners  are  still  under  the  im- 
pression that,  although  intensive  cultivation  may 
be  all  very  well  round  Paris,  it  is  not  likely  to  be 
of  great  use  in  the  British  Islands.  Even  if  this 
weak  argument  be  used  against  the  adoption  of  the 
system  during  the  winter  months,  it  cannot  possibly 
be  urged  against  its  practice  during  the  summer 
season.  French  and  English  gardeners  are  then 
on  a  level  footing.  They  both  grow  their  salads  in 
the  open  air  without  the  aid  of  artificial  heat.  But 
what  a  difference  is  noticeable  in  the  methods  of 
cultivation,  and  in  the  amount  of  produce  taken  off 
a  similar  area  of  ground  within  a  given  period  !  On 
the  English  side  of  the  Channel,  Nature — with  the 
help  of  an  occasional  hoeing,  and  a  spasmodic  or 
irregular  watering — does  most  of  the  work  on  soil 
that  has  been  treated  in  the  ordinary  way.  Around 
Paris,  however,  not  only  is  the  soil  made  up  of  beautiful 
spongy  mould  from  old  and  well-decayed  manure, 
but  water  is  given  in  such  abundance  during  growth 
that  Nature  is  encouraged  to  put  forth  all  her  energies 
in  the  shortest  time.  Added  to  this,  there  is  the 
ingenious  system  of  intercropping,  by  means  of 
which  the  ground  is  covered  with  plants  in  all  stages 
of  growth,  and  one  crop  succeeds  another  as  if  by 
magic.  During  the  summer  months,  at  least,  there 
is  therefore  little  to  prevent  this  system  being  carried 
out  in  Britain. 

At  the  present  time  there  is  no  book  in  the  English 
language  dealing  with  all  the  details  of  the  French 
system  of  intensive  cultivation  as  practised  in  the 



neighbourhood  of  Paris.  Hence  the  appearance  of 
this  volume.  The  subject  has  been  considered  from  a 
commercial  gardener's  point  of  view,  the  main  object 
being  to  give  reliable  information  on  a  subject  that  is 
now  attracting  great  attention,  not  only  throughout 
the  British  Isles,  but  in  the  United  States  and  Canada. 
French  gardens  in  England  and  around  Paris  have 
been  visited,  and  the  best  French  authorities  on  the 
subject  have  been  consulted.  Chief  amongst  these 
are  the  works  of  MM.  Court ois-Gerard,  Cure,  and 
Potrat — all  of  which  deal  more  or  less  exhaustively 
with  the  "  culture  maraichere."  I  have  also  made 
frequent  reference  to  Mr.  Robinson's  Parks  and 
Gardens  of  Paris,  and  I  am  under  still  further  ob- 
ligation to  the  author  of  that  work  for  the  use  of  many 
of  the  woodcuts  in  this  volume  which  he  has  generously 
placed  at  my  disposal.  In  addition  he  has  honoured 
me  by  writing  an  "  Introduction  "  bearing  directly 
upon  a  subject  in  which  he  has  been  personally  in- 
terested for  so  many  years.  The  other  illustrations, 
apart  from  my  own  diagrams,  have  been  kindly 
supplied  by  MM.  Vilmorin,  of  Paris. 

My  best  thanks  are  due  to  Mr.  George  Schneider, 
President  of  the  French  Horticultural  Society  in 
London  ;  to  MM.  Aquatias  and  Lecoq,  formerly  of 
May  land  ;  and  to  M.  Adolphe  Beck,  the  pioneer  of 
French  gardeners  in  England,  for  the  information 
they  so  readily  gave  me  on  many  points. 

In  regard  to  the  names  of  the  different  varieties  of 
vegetables  and  salads  mentioned  in  this  work,  the 
French  names  as  well  as  the  recognised  English  names 
have  been  given  in  most  cases,  in  the  hope  that  it  may 
prove  a  convenience. 




PREFACE         V 

INTRODUCTION,    BY   MR.   W.    ROBINSON  .  .  .     XVii 




FRANCE             4 

WORK   IN   A   FRENCH   GARDEN         ....  6 

THE   SITE   FOR  A   FRENCH   GARDEN          ...  7 

THE   SOIL  AND   ITS   TREATMENT     ...           .           .  IO 


MANURES        . 17 




A   WORD   TO   AMATEUR   GARDENERS         .  .  -3° 

IMPLEMENTS  AND  ACCESSORIES      .                       .           .  32 







THE   VEGETABLE   MARKET   IN    PARIS        ...  57 

EXTENSION   OF  THE   FRENCH   SYSTEM    .            .            -  59 






CARDOONS      ........  97 


CAULIFLOWERS       .......  104 


CELERIAC   OR   TURNIP-ROOTED   CELERY             .           ,  120 

CHICORY,    BARBE   DE   CAPUCIN,   AND   WITLOOF        .  121 

CORN   SALAD   OR   LAMB'S   LETTUCE           .            .            .  123 



EGG-PLANTS   OR   AUBERGINES           ....  131 




LEEKS 139 

LETTUCES .  .  142 



ONIONS  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  185 

RADISHES       .  l88 

SALSAFY    AND     SCORZONERA  .  .  .  .  IQ2 

SORREL  .....  .  .  193 



TURNIPS          ........  2OI 



PLAN   OF  A   FRENCH   GARDEN          ....  221 

INDEX 223 



1.  Raised  sloping  bed  .......  13 

2.  Cloches  arranged  on  beds 22 

3.  Frame  as  used  in  French  gardens         .         .         -33 

4.  Cloche 35 

5.  Cloche  carrier 35 

6.  Cloches  stacked  up          ......  36 

7.  Rye-straw  mat         .......  3^ 

8.  Frame  for  making  mats 39 

9.  Frame  tilt        ........  40 

10.  Properly  notched  cloche  tilt  .  .         .  42 

11.  Badly  notched  cloche  tilt 42 

12.  Cloche  tilted  over  seedlings    .  .         .  42 

13.  Wicker  manure  basket    ......  44 

14.  Manure  stand,  etc.   .......  44 

15.  French  water-pot     .......  46 

16.  Forcing  Asparagus  in  frames 71 

17.  Asparagus  trenches          ......  79 

1 8.  Asparagus  buncher          .         .         .         .         .  87 

19.  Cabbage,  Early  Ox-Heart        .....  92 

20.  „         Express      .         .         .         .         .         .         .92 

21.  ,,         Early  Etampes 93 

22.  „         Paris  Market  Ox-Heart     .         .         .         .  *  94 

23.  „         Flat  Parisian     ....  .96 




24.  Carrot,  French  Forcing 100 

25.  „       Scarlet  Horn 101 

26.  „       Half-long  Scarlet  Carentan          .         .         .  101 

27.  ,,       Half -long  Scarlet  Nantes    .         .         .         .102 

28.  Cauliflower,  Dwarf  Early  Erfurt              .         .         .  105 

29.  ,,           Lenormand,  short-stalked    .         .         .  106 

30.  ,,           Second  Early  Paris      ....  107 

31.  Celeriac  or  Turnip-rooted  Celery     .         .         .         .120 

32.  Witloof  or  Brussels  Chicory             ....  122 

33.  Corn  Salad,  Round-leaved       .         .         .         .         .123 

34.  Endive,  Green  Curled  Paris    .         .         .         .         .  135 

35.  ,,       Broad-leaved  Batavian        ....  137 

36.  Cabbage  Lettuce,  Grosse  blonde  paresseuse,  or  White 

Stone 144 

37.  Diagram  showing  how  twenty-four  seedling  Lettuces 

are  pricked  out  under  cloche    .         .         .         •  I47 

38.  Diagram  showing  how  thirty  seedling  Lettuces  are 

pricked  out  under  cloche  .         .         .         .         .  147 

39.  Diagram  showing  one  Cos  and  four  Cabbage  Lettuces 

under  cloche 150 

40.  Cabbage  Lettuce,  White  "  Gotte  ".         .         .         .151 

41.  Diagram  showing  Cos  and  Cabbage  Lettuces  under 

cloches  intercropped  with  Cauliflowers     .         .     153 

42.  Cabbage  Lettuce,  Palatine 154 

43.  ,,  ,,  "  All  the  Year  Round "      .         .     155 

44.  ,,  ,,  Giant  Summer    ....     156 

45.  „  ,,  Passion                 .                           .     157 

46.  „  „  Winter  Tremont          .         .         .158 

47.  Diagram    showing    one    Cos    and    three    Cabbage 

Lettuces  under  cloche 161 

48.  Diagram  showing  first,  second,  and  third  moving  of 

cloches  over  Lettuces        ,         .         »         .         .162 



49.  Cos  Lettuce,  "Paris  White " .  .  .  .164 

50.  Melon,  Prescott  Early  Frame          .  .  .  .167 

51.  Melon,  Cantaloup  Silvery  Prescott  .  .  .168 

52.  Mushroom  caves,   view   in               .  .  .  .179 

53.  Mushroom  caves,  view   in 181 

54.  Radish,  Forcing  Scarlet  White- tipped  .  .  .189 

55.  „        Olive-Scarlet  White-tipped  .  .  .190 

56.  Turnip,  Half-long  Vertu  or  Marteau  .  .  .     202 

57.  „         Half-long  White  Forcing    .  .  .  .     203 


THERE  is  no  contrast  in  the  farm  or  garden  world  more 
striking  than  that  between  the  market-gardens  of  London 
and  Paris  :  about  London  broad  sweeps  in  the  Thames 
valley,  wind-swept,  shelterless,  well  farmed  ;  about  Paris 
close  gardens,  walled  in,  richly  cultivated,  and  verdant 
with  crops,  even  at  the  most  inclement  time  of  the  year, 
and  with  not  an  inch  of  space  wasted  with  paths.  And 
this  is  not  owing  to  the  differences  of  climate,  although 
people  say,  whenever  one  speaks  of  it,  "  It  is  a  question 
of  climate"  I  do  not  know  a  worse  climate  in  winter 
than  that  of  Paris,  the  season  when  the  gardeners  get 
their  most  profitable  results.  For  all  green  things  our 
climate  is,  if  anything,  a  shade  better  than  theirs.  The 
very  fact  of  the  little  cloche  covering  acres  proves  that 
the  climate  of  Paris  is  not  so  good.  The  late  M.  Henri 
de  Vilmorin  used  to  tell  me  that  his  father  had  much 
considered  the  market-gardens  of  the  two  capitals,  and 
estimated  that  the  French  grower  of  vegetables  got  at 
least  four  times  the  quantity  obtained  in  the  larger  and 
broader  cultures  round  London.  Be  it  noted  here  that 
this  book  concerns  the  limited  culture  of  the  Paris  market- 
gardens,  for  around  Paris,  as  around  London,  there  is 
the  large  field  culture  of  vegetables.  There  is  good  soil 
round  Paris  in  the  Seine  valley,  and  we  cannot  complain 
of  the  soil  in  the  valley  of  the  Thames — it  is  a  totally 
different  system  and  plan  we  have  to  look  to. 

xvii  A 


The  cloche  is  a  great  worker  for  the  grower,  and  defies 
a  harsh  climate,  as,  combined  with  good  soil  and  culture, 
it  enables  the  French  gardener  to  supply  so  many  of  the 
markets  of  Britain  and  Western  Europe  with  salads 
and  other  early  and  welcome  things.  The  use  and  work 
of  the  cloche  well  deserve  study  on  the  part  of  gardeners. 
The  packing  and  moving  of  cloches  require  much  care, 
if  we  are  not  to  lose  the  half  of  them,  and  we  should  not 
want  makers  of  them  over  here.  Surely  our  own  glass 
people  should  be  able  to  supply  us.  It  was  one  trouble 
of  the  imported  cloches  that  if  not  very  carefully  packed 
half  of  them  were  lost  on  the  way.  Even  without  the 
finely  prepared  soil  of  the  Paris  gardens,  they  are  most 
useful  in  various  other  ways,  and  I  strike  my  Tea  Roses 
under  them  in  the  autumn,  and  get  the  early  tender 
green  things  in  the  spring.  They  are  also  an  excellent 
aid  in  propagation. 

It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  the  soil  of  the  French 
market-garden  is  not  really  a  soil  as  we  understand  it, 
but  very  often  is  almost  decayed  manure — old  hot-beds, 
in  fact — that,  mixed  with  a  good  natural  soil  below, 
makes  the  conditions  of  soil  about  as  good  as  they  can  be. 

The  French  cook  is  a  great  aid,  because,  master  in 
his  domain,  he  insists  on  having  things  of  the  right 
quality  and  right  age.  In  the  Paris  market  you  never 
see  the  coarse  razor-bill  beans  of  our  market,  nor  carrots 
scarcely  fit  to  offer  to  a  horse,  because  over  all  vegetables 
the  cook  exercises  control.  If  our  English  cooks  were  to 
have  the  same  power  it  might  help  to  put  a  stop  to  the  prac- 
tice of  sending  coarse  vegetables  to  our  markets.  Once, 
speaking  to  a  leading  grower  of  peaches  at  Montreuil, 
I  asked  his  opinion  of  certain  new  peaches  more  re- 
markable for  size  than  for  good  flavour,  and  he  said, 


"  //  we  were  to  send  in  those  peaches  to  our  customers 
they  would  be  promptly  sent  back  to  us"  ! 

The  clever  way  of  intercropping  in  these  gardens  is 
instructive,  and  might  be  carried  out  almost  anywhere. 
Weeks  before  a  given  crop  is  ready  for  cutting  another 
crop,  usually  of  a  different  nature,  is  planted  between, 
and  when  the  first  crop  is  cut  the  new  one  is  ready  to 
spread  itself  out  and  occupy  the  whole  of  the  ground. 
The  partial  shade  of  the  first  crop  does  the  young  plants 
no  harm.  This  is  one  way  of  getting  a  good  deal  off 
the  ground.  This  plan  is  carried  out  to  some  extent 
by  cottage  gardeners  in  England,  who  are  often  good 

This  book  is  the  work  of  a  thoroughly  trained  gardener 
(a  better  word  than  horticulturist)  ;  it  is  sure  to  be  helpful 
to  all  those  who  are  interested  in  this  question,  and  goes 
as  far  as  a  book  can.  I  think  in  all  these  interesting 
cultures  we  ought  to  do  a  little  more  than  book  or  college 
work.  We  should  send  young  men  abroad  after  due 
training,  the  farmer  to  Germany  and  Hungary,  the 
gardener  to  France.  There  is  so  much  more  to  be  learnt 
by  actual  contact  with  soil,  climate,  surroundings — every- 
thing. They  speak  to  us  in  a  way  that  no  book  ever 
can.  And  the  same  thing  may  be  said  in  regard  to 
forestry  and  mirsery  work  ;  but  the  men  who  are  to  do  this 
kind  of  work  should  be  well-trained  men — that  is,  men  who 
have  been  trained  in  several  good  gardens,  so  that  they 
might  be  able  to  judge  of  the  value  of  what  they  saw. 

Those  who  think  of  attempting  such  gardening  in  our 
country  should  remember  that  this  very  special  culture 
is  for  the  most  valuable  crops,  and  that  the  work  is  done 
in  the  best  conditions  by  unremitting  labour  of  trained 
men.  In  France,  as  in  our  own  country,  for  ordinary 


things  there  is  the  open  field  culture.  Also  there  are  in 
France  and  in  all  countries  certain  things  that  have  to 
be  grown  in  the  best  natural  conditions  and  soils  if 
their  finest  qualities  are  to  be  secured — such  things  as 
asparagus,  for  example,  and  even  the  wild-flavoured 
turnips  we  see  in  our  markets  in  spring  ;  and,  whether 
we  deal  with  plants,  or  horses,  or  cattle,  or  sheep,  no  skill 
can  take  the  place  of  the  natural  conditions  that  suit 
them  best. 

For  the  special  cultures  round  Paris  a  good  supply 
of  water  is  essential,  and  this  cannot  be  commanded  so 
well  in  open  field  culture.  In  the  British  Islands  the 
supply  of  water  is  so  copious  that,  except  in  the  south 
and  east,  we  seldom  feel  the  want  of  it  ;  but  in  the  London 
district,  in  hot  summers,  the  markets  sometimes  suffer, 
and  therefore  a  good  water  supply  in  all  parts  of  the 
choice  garden  is  a  gain.  I  noticed  in  the  Chinese  gardens 
in  California  a  striking  resemblance  to  French  ways 
in  their  thorough  culture,  absolute  cleanliness,  and 
immediate  supplies  of  water  ;  and  everything  suggested 
some  old-world  connection  between  the  two. 





THE  term  "  intensive  "  cultivation  is  now  used  to 
indicate  the  particular  methods  employed  by  market- 
gardeners  or  "  maraichers "  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Paris  to  produce  early  crops  of  salads  and  vege- 
tables at  a  season  of  the  year  when  they  are  most 
likely  to  realise  high  prices  in  the  market.  These 
early  crops  are  known  as  "  primeurs "  amongst 
French  gardeners  ;  and  to  secure  them  at  just  the 
right  moment  necessitates  intimate  knowledge  as 
to  the  soil,  temperature,  and  general  treatment  re- 
quired by  each  particular  crop  to  bring  it  to  perfection. 
Intensive  cultivation  differs  from  the  ordinary  methods 
of  culture,  inasmuch  as  it  means,  in  addition  to  know- 
ledge, incessant  care  and  attention.  Comparatively 
small  areas  of  ground  are  used  by  growers,  and  it 
may  be  said  that  at  no  time  during  the  year  is  the 
land  free  from  crops  of  one  kind  or  another.  Indeed, 
several  crops  are  grown  on  the  same  patch  of  land 



simultaneously,  as  mentioned  further  on  in  the  pages 
of  this  work.  The  great  aim  seems  to  be  to  grow 
together  crops  of  quite  different  natures,  so  that 
the  growth  of  one  shall  not  interfere  with  the  proper 
development  of  the  other  before  it  is  gathered. 

"  The  culture  of  salads  for  the  Paris  market,"  said 
Mr.  Robinson  forty  years  ago  in  his  Parks  and  Gardens 
of  Paris,  "  is  not  merely  good — it  is  perfection." 
The  same  opinion  holds  good  to-day,  and  there  can 
be  no  doubt  that  in  many  parts  of  the  British  Islands, 
where  the  climate  is  kinder  to  the  gardener  than  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Paris,  it  is  within  the  region  of 
possibility  to  grow  produce  that  would  rival  if  not 
surpass  what  is  imported  from  abroad. 

Although  much  attention  has  been  directed  to 
the  French  methods  of  growing  such  early  crops  as 
Carrots,  Radishes,  Cauliflowers,  Turnips,  Lettuces,  etc., 
there  are  at  present  few  establishments  in  England 
where  the  system  is  practised  on  bona-fide  commercial 
lines.  The  first  garden  of  the  kind  was  established 
at  Evesham  in  the  year  1905,  but  it  soon  passed 
from  the  hands  of  the  original  owner.  What  may 
be  called  an  experimental  and  educational  garden  on 
intensive  cultivation  has  also  been  established  at 
Mayland,  in  Essex,  by  Mr.  Joseph  Fels.  No  expense 
has  been  spared  in  fitting  up  this  garden  with  all 
modern  appliances,  and  a  capital  outlay  of  some 
£2,000  to  £3,000  has  been  incurred.  The  ordinary 
market-gardener,  however,  no  matter  how  intelligent 
or  skilful  he  may  be,  is  not  likely  to  look  upon  such 
a  large  initial  outlay  with  great  favour,  knowing 
as  he  does  from  practical  experience  the  fluctuations 
of  the  markets,  and  the  fickleness  of  the  public  taste. 


While  it  may  not  be  necessary  to  spend  anything  like 
£2,000  or  £3,000  when  starting  a  French  garden,  it 
is  simply  preposterous  to  imagine — as  some  do — that 
the  intensive  system  of  cultivation  can  be  adopted 
on  remunerative  lines  without  incurring  some  expense. 
Cloches,  frames,  manure,  and  water — the  four  great 
feet  of  the  system — must  be  provided  before  a  start 
can  be  made,  and  what  these  are  likely  to  cost  may 
be  seen  from  the  figures  given  at  p.  25. 

Besides  the  French  gardens  at  Evesham  and  in 
Essex,  there  are  others,  such  as  the  one  at  the  Burhill 
Golf  Club,  Walton,  and  the  notable  one  at  Thatcham 
in  Berkshire.  This  garden  has  been  much  boomed 
in  the  daily  press,  and  is  undoubtedly  a  most  inter- 
esting object-lesson  as  to  what  can  be  done  by  women. 
It  is  managed  entirely  by  ladies,  with  the  help  of  a 
French  gardener  or  "  maraicher "  ;  and  I  should 
say  that  it  was  established  on  reasonable  and  economic 
lines.  The  garden  occupies  about  2  acres,  and  is 
on  a  fairly  rich  sandy  loam,  with  a  gentle  slope  to 
the  south.  The  land  has  been  fenced  in  all  round, 
and  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  most  of  the  manure 
has  to  be  carted  from  Reading,  a  distance  of  14  miles, 
and  works  out  at  js.  per  ton,  I  was  informed  that 
very  good  results  were  obtained.  Water  is  obtained 
from  a  well  that  has  been  sunk  40  feet  deep,  but  it 
is  to  be  made  deeper.  Last  year  the  storage  tank 
held  only  500  gallons  of  water ;  this  was  found  to 
be  much  too  small,  and  it  was  necessary  to  keep 
the  oil  engine  pumping  all  day  to  secure  a  sufficient 

That  profits  are  to  be  made  out  of  French  gardening 
there  can  be  no  doubt,  and  an  attempt  has  been  made 


at  p.  26  to  show  what  they  are  likely  to  be.  The 
figures  given  may  be  considerably  below  the  mark 
so  far  as  profits  are  concerned,  and  if  so,  so  much 
the  better.  It  is  always  as  difficult  to  estimate 
profits  in  advance  as  it  is  to  count  chickens  before 
they  are  hatched.  In  any  case,  profits  depend  upon 
so  many  factors — the  personality  of  the  grower,  his 
skilfulness  as  a  cultivator,  his  knowledge  of  the 
markets,  his  business  ability,  etc. — any  one  of  which 
neglected  or  overlooked  at  a  critical  moment  may 
easily  upset  the  best-laid  schemes,  and  end  in  loss 
instead  of  profit. 

There  is  one  thing  about  commercial  gardening 
from  which  we  cannot  get  away,  and  that  is — expenses 
must  be  incurred  if  any  profit  at  all  is  to  be  made. 


Some  people  are  inclined  to  think  that  the  present 
system  of  intensive  cultivation  as  practised  in  the 
market-gardens  (or  "  marais,"  as  they  are  called)  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Paris  is  an  old  English  system 
that  was  dropped  years  ago  and  is  now  being  revived. 
I  do  not  think  it  is  anything  of  the  kind.  The  English 
gardener  has  had  his  system  all  along,  and  the  French 
gardener  his — each  sticking  more  or  less  obstinately 
to  his  own. 

The  system  described  in  this  work  is  by  no  means 
new,  but  I  think  it  may  be  looked  upon  as  being 
almost  exclusively  French,  if  not  entirely  Parisian. 
Claude  Mollet,  the  first  gardener  to  Louis  XIII.  of 
France  (b.  1601,  d.  1643),  seems  to  have  been  the 


first  great  exponent  of  it,  judging  from  his  Theatre 
du  Jardinage,  published  in  1700.  Another  French 
gardener,  La  Quintinye  (b.  1626,  d.  1688),  whose 
Instruction  pour  les  Jardins  fruitiers  et  potagers  was 
published  in  1690,  also  deals  with  the  subject  and 
tells  how  he  was  able  to  send  to  the  table  of  Louis  XIV., 
surnamed  "  the  Great  "  (b.  1638,  d.  1715),  Asparagus 
and  Sorrel  in  December ;  Radishes,  Lettuces,  and 
Mushrooms  in  January ;  Cauliflowers  in  March ; 
Strawberries  early  in  April ;  Peas  in  May  ;  and  Melons 
in  June. 

From  this  it  may  be  gathered  that  the  art  of  inten- 
sive cultivation  even  in  the  seventeenth  century  was 
by  no  means  in  its  infancy.  Frames  were  already 
in  use,  and  long  before  them  cloches  were  common. 

From  the  time  of  Louis  XIII.  to  that  of  Louis  XVIII. 
— that  is,  from  about  the  year  1600  to  1800 — great 
progress  seems  to  have  been  made  ;  and  garden  after 
garden  was  established  in  Paris  and  its  environs. 
The  troubles  of  the  Revolution  and  the  wars  of  the 
Empire,  however,  interfered  a  good  deal  with  the 
development  of  the  system  for  the  time  being.  But 
in  1844,  according  to  Courtois-Gerard,  about  1,500 
acres  of  land  were  devoted  to  intensive  cultivation  in 
Paris.  This  area  was  in  the  hands  of  1,125  growers, 
so  that  each  had  an  average  of  not  much  more  than 
an  acre. 

Since  that  time  great  alterations  have  taken  place 
owing  to  the  construction  of  railways,  new  boulevards, 
and  other  improvements,  the  result  being  that  many 
of  the  old  Parisian  market-gardens  have  completely 
vanished.  On  the  outskirts  of  Paris,  however,  several 
hundreds  of  gardens  have  been  established,  and  it  is 


computed  that  about  1,300  growers  practise  the 
intensive  system  of  cultivation  at  the  present  time 
on  about  3,000  acres  of  land.  These  growers  have 
about  460,000  lights,  and  from  5,000,000  to  6,000,000 
bell-glasses  or  cloches  among  them.  The  largest 
number  of  lights  used  by  a  single  individual  is  said 
to  be  1,400,  and  the  smallest  60  ;  while  the  greatest 
number  of  cloches  used  by  one  man  is  said  to  be 
5,000,  the  lowest  number  being  100. 

The  produce  grown  by  these  market-gardeners  is 
considered  to  be  worth  over  half  a  million  sterling 
yearly — giving  an  average  of  about  £400  to  each 


Those  who  produce  early  vegetables  and  salads 
have  by  no  means  an  easy  time  in  French  gardens 
proper.  Every  one  is  awake  before  daylight,  and 
the  women  play  their  part  as  well  as  the  men.  In 
summer  they  are  often  up  at  2  o'clock  in  the  morning, 
and  in  winter  at  4  o'clock,  so  as  to  be  ready  to  sell 
the  produce  at  the  central  markets.  When  they  re- 
turn home  they  attend  to  such  work  as  weeding,  and 
packing,  or  pulling  the  vegetables  for  the  following 
day's  market.  In  all  their  work  they  are  assisted 
by  their  daughters,  and  although  the  work  is  not 
exactly  rough,  it  is  nevertheless  very  tiring,  because 
they  are  often  obliged  to  kneel  on  the  ground  for  the 
greater  part  of  the  day  regardless  of  the  season  or 
the  weather. 

The  men  commence  work  after  the  women  have 
gone  to  market.  At  7  o'clock  in  the  morning  they 


munch  a  crust  whilst  at  work,  and  at  9  o'clock  all 
go  to  breakfast.  In  the  summer  time,  owing  to 
the  heat,  they  rest  for  one  or  two  hours  at  mid-day 
and  all  have  dinner  together  like  a  family.  After 
dinner,  each  one  works  on  again  without  interruption 
until  supper  time,  which  takes  place  at  10  o'clock  in 
summer  and  at  8  o'clock  in  winter.  During  the 
evening  the  men  water  the  crops,  make  mats,  carry 
leaf-soil,  manure,  etc.  At  the  same  time  the  women 
arrange  the  produce  in  baskets,  crates,  or  hampers 
according  to  requirements,  after  which  the  waggon 
is  loaded  so  that  everything  shall  be  in  readiness 
for  the  market.  Such  is  the  picture  of  a  French 
maraicher's  or  market-gardener's  life  as  drawn  by 
Court  ois-Gerard  in  1844,  and  it  is  apparently  much 
the  same  now.  Certainly,  one  has  only  to  pay  a 
visit  to  the  Halles  Centrales — as  the  Paris  markets 
are  called — to  see  at  a  glance  what  an  important 
part  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  French  market- 
gardeners  play  in  the  great  industry  we  are  con- 
sidering. Are  those  who  wish  to  make  fortunes 
out  of  the  land  in  the  British  Islands  willing  to  work 
like  French  men  and  French  women  ?  That  is  the 


When  choosing  a  site  for  a  French  garden  it  is 
essential  to  select  a  piece  of  land  quite  free  from 
trees  and  shrubs,  and  away  from  high  buildings  that 
cast  a  shade.  The  ground  should  be  either  flat 
or  with  a  gentle  slope  in  any  direction  between  the 
south-east  and  south-west ;  and  if  rectangular  in 


shape,  so  much  the  better.  A  position  too  close  to 
the  sea-coast  should  be  avoided,  especially  in  very 
windy  localities,  as  the  briny  spray  from  the  ocean 
will  do  much  damage  to  tender  vegetation. 

Protection  from  the  cold  winds  from  the  north 
and  east,  and  also  against  south-westerly  gales,  is 
more  or  less  essential — in  the  latter  case  chiefly  on 
account  of  the  damage  that  is  likely  to  be  done  to 
lights  and  cloches.  Good  walls,  close  wooden  fences, 
or  thick  hedges  should  be  erected  for  the  purpose. 
Walls  and  fences  may  be  utilised  for  growing  various 
kinds  of  fruit-trees,  but  in  the  French  gardens  I 
visited  T  noticed  that  the  walls  all  round  were  quite 
bare,  and  were  merely  shelters.  One  grower,  indeed, 
informed  me  that  it  was  scarcely  worth  while  trying 
to  grow  fruit-trees  on  the  walls,  as  they  would  be 
more  trouble  than  they  were  worth. 

Personally,  however,  I  should  imagine  that  good 
kinds  of  fruit-trees  trained  on  a  wooden  fence  or  wall 
would  not  interfere  with  the  culture  of  vegetables  and 
salads,  and  would  be  a  source  of  income  in  due  course. 

BORDERS. — In  every  "  French  "  garden  it  is  usual 
to  have  a  border  from  6  to  12  ft.  wide  round  the 
walls  or  fences,  such  borders  being  often  raised  at 
the  back  and  sloping  towards  the  front,  especially 
when  having  a  south  aspect.  According  to  the 
season,  various  vegetables  are  grown  on  these  borders. 
For  example  Cos  Lettuces  raised  under  lights  or 
cloches  may  be  planted  out  on  a  south  border  in 
January,  or  early  in  February,  after  a  sowing  of 
Radishes  and  Early  Carrots  has  been  previously 
made  on  the  same  soil ;  and  Cauliflowers  raised  in 
autumn  and  protected  in  frames  during  the  winter 

THE    SITE   FOR   A   FRENCH    GARDEN        9 

may  be  planted  between  the  Lettuces  in  March. 
These  various  crops  will  mature  at  different  times — 
the  Radishes,  Lettuces,  and  Carrots  being  gathered 
long  before  the  Cauliflowers ;  and  when  the  last- 
named  have  matured  the  border  may  be  utilised 
for  Cucumbers,  Endive,  Lettuce,  Spinach,  etc.,  ac- 
cording to  requirements. 

On  the  borders  facing  east  and  west  similar  crops 
may  be  sown  or  planted.  The  aspect,  however,  not 
being  so  genial  as  that  facing  south,  crops  mature 
somewhat  later. 

The  north  border  also  has  its  uses.  In  summer 
it  may  be  used  for  raising  Spinach,  Turnips,  Lettuce, 
etc.,  which  enjoy  a  little  shade  during  the  great  heat 
of  summer.  Or  such  an  aspect  may  be  used  for 
storing  the  idle  frames  during  the  summer,  or  for 
building  a  shed  in  which  lights,  mats,  etc.,  not  in  use 
may  be  packed  away. 

I  have  seen  the  frames  packed  up  on  each  other 
a  dozen  or  more  high  so  as  to  be  out  of  the  way  of 
crops.  The  cloches  are  also  stacked  up  close  together 
in  heaps  of  four  and  five  (as  shown  in  fig.  6),  and 
even  during  the  summer  months  when  not  in  use 
are  covered  with  old  mats  or  straw.  This  is  to  protect 
them  from  the  hail-storms  which  sometimes  suddenly 
come  on  with  great  violence  in  Paris.  Indeed,  in 
August  1908  I  saw  a  Vitry  garden  where  sad  havoc 
had  been  made  amongst  the  cloches  during  a  hail- 
storm in  July. 

In  a  "  French  "  garden  protection  is  of  such  vital 
importance  that  where  neither  walls  nor  hedges 
exist,  it  is  essential  to  erect  a  fence  of  some  sort  as 
a  guard  against  the  wind. 



Although  so  much  manure  is  used  in  the  process 
of  intensive  cultivation,  one  must,  nevertheless,  not 
overlook  the  fact  that  a  good  natural  soil  in  the  garden 
is  of  the  utmost  importance.  The  seeds  of  many 
crops  may  be  sown  in  the  open  air,  from  which  the 
plants  will  later  on  be  transferred  to  frames  or  cloches. 
And  again,  plants  raised  in  frames  may  be  transplanted 
to  the  open  ground  according  to  circumstances.  If 
the  soil,  therefore,  is  already  in  good  condition  it  will 
mean  not  only  good  growth  of  the  crops  but  also  a 
great  saving  in  labour  and  manures.  An  ideal 
garden  soil  for  ordinary  purposes  should  consist  of 
about  40  parts  clay,  35  parts  sand,  10  parts  lime, 
and  15  parts  humus,  in  every  hundred.  With  proper 
digging,  or  occasional  trenching,  and  a  fair  supply 
of  manure — say  about  16  tons  to  the  acre — such  a 
soil  will  yield  excellent  results,  especially  in  genial 
and  sheltered  localities.  Indeed,  for  vegetables  and 
salads  I  think  much  more  manure  than  this  might 
be  used  in  a  well -rotted  state  than  is  at  present  usual 
in  ordinary  gardens  :  20  to  30  tons  to  the  acre  would 
not  be  too  much. 

Where  wet,  cold,  and  heavy  clay  exists,  it  will 
require  modifying  with  the  addition  of  sand  or  grit, 
and  humus,  in  addition  to  deep  cultivation.  If,  on 
the  other  hand,  the  soil  is  light  and  sandy  or  gravelly, 
it  will  be  improved  by  the  addition  of  heavy  loam, 
chalk,  or  marl,  as  well  as  plenty  of  manure-^especially 
from  the  cowshed  or  piggery. 

Where,  however,  frames  and  cloches  are  used 
extensively  for  early  crops  grown  on  hot-beds,  the 

THE   SOIL   AND   ITS   TREATMENT          n 

soil  beneath  is  not  of  such  vital  importance,  as  the 
roots  of  the  plants  do  not  touch  it.  I  remember  that 
the  soil  in  the  "  French  "  garden  at  Mayland,  Essex, 
was  little  better  than  harsh  brick  earth,  and  yet  some 
magnificent  crops  were  produced  in  the  frames  and 
cloches  upon  the  beds  and  composts  that  had  been 
specially  prepared  for  them. 

Whatever  the  soil  may  be,  it  is  essential  to  have  it 
cleared  of  weeds  and  rubbish  prior  to  digging  and 
levelling,  so  that  it  will  be  a  fairly  easy  matter  to  mark 
out  the  lines  where  the  frames  and  beds  are  to  be  laid 

PLANNING  OUT  THE  GROUND. — Having  decided  upon 
the  number  of  frames  to  be  used  and  hot-beds  to  be 
made  it  is  necessary  to  mark  the  ground  out  in  parallelo- 
grams with  a  narrow  pathway  or  alley  between  each. 
The  frames  used  by  the  French  growers  are  4  ft. 
5  in.  in  width.  Consequently,  the  beds  will  be  made 
wide  enough  to  take  them.  As  the  ground  in  Paris 
is  exceedingly  dear — often  £30  or  £40  per  acre — the 
French  growers  cannot  afford  to  waste  any  space. 
Hence  the  alley  or  pathway  between  one  range  of 
frames  and  another  is  reduced  to  the  least  possible 
width.  This  is  generally  about  12  in. — but  often 
only  9  in. — just  sufficient  to  allow  a  man  to  walk 
between  them  carefully.  In  places  where  land  is  not 
excessively  dear,  it  is  scarcely  necessary  to  have  such 
narrow  pathways,  as  they  are  by  no  means  easy  for 
the  novice  to  negotiate.  One  must,  however,  remember 
that  the  wider  pathways  will  absorb  much  more 
manure  for  banking  up  or  "  lining  "  the  frames  in 
winter  than  the  narrow  ones ;  consequently,  wide 
pathways  would  be  a  source  of  considerable  expense. 


PREPARING  THE  BEDS. — Having  marked  out  the 
ground,  the  soil  in  the  beds  is  then  broken  up  with 
the  fork.  The  rake  is  afterwards  passed  over  it  to 
make  level,  and  any  clods  or  stones  are  drawn  into  the 
pathways.  Here  they  are  left  to  be  trodden  down, 
because  it  is  generally  an  advantage  to  have  the 
pathways  somewhat  higher  than  the  surface  of  the 
beds.  If  the  beds  are  higher  than  the  pathways  the 
water  runs  off  the  beds  away  from  the  roots  of  the 
plants,  so  that  the  latter  are  likely  to  suffer. 

The  beds  should  run  as  near  as  possible  east  and 
west,  so  that  the  frames  shall  slope  towards  the  south. 
If  this  position  cannot  be  secured  the  next  best  is 
between  the  north-west  and  south-east,  the  object 
in  both  cases  being  to  secure  as  much  light  and  heat 
as  possible  from  the  sun  for  the  plants  beneath  the 

SLOPING  BORDERS. — It  often  happens  that  borders 
cannot  be  made  in  sheltered  places  against  walls, 
hedges,  or  fences,  and  they  are  then  made  in  the  open. 

A  piece  of  ground  is  marked  out  about  6J  ft. 
wide  and  is  deeply  dug  all  over.  On  the  south  side 
a  trench  about  2  ft.  3  in.  is  then  made  about  6  in. 
deep,  and  the  soil  from  it  is  placed  on  the  northern 
edge  of  the  remaining  piece  of  soil.  This  is  about 
4  ft.  3  in.  wide,  so  as  to  accommodate  three  rows 
of  cloches  when  "  angled "  with  each  other.  The 
back  of  the  bed,  i.e.  the  northern  side,  is  made  firm 
by  patting  with  the  spade,  and  is  kept  straight  with 
the  aid  of  a  line  tightly  stretched  from  one  end  to 
another.  The  trench  forms  the  pathway,  and  the 
soil  from  it  serves  to  raise  the  bed  so  as  to  make  the 
surface  incline  towards  the  south.  The  surface  is 

THE    SOIL   AND    ITS    TREATMENT        13 

levelled  with  the  rake,  and  it  will  be  noticed  from 
the  sketch  (fig.  i)  that  the  cloches  in  the  first  row  are 
almost  on  the  level,  while  the  two  behind  are  raised 
up.  If  the  soil  at  the  back  drops  down  into  a  slope, 


it  may  be  chopped  down  straight  with  the  spade,  and 
spread  over  the  surface  ;  or  it  may  be  left  to  buttress 
up  the  entire  bed. 


Without  a  good  supply  of  water  the  cultivation  of 
early  produce  on  the  French  system  is  out  of  the 
question.  One  of  the  most  important  points,  therefore, 
to  bear  in  mind  when  selecting  a  site  for  a  French 
garden  is  to  find  out  whether  there  is  likely  to  be  an 
abundance  of  water  or  not.  In  the  great  majority 
of  cases  it  may  be  impossible  or  ruinously  expensive 
to  have  water  from  any  of  the  companies.  It  must, 
therefore,  be  secured  either  from  streams,  ponds,  or 
wells.  In  any  case,  it  will  be  necessary  to  secure  it 
in  such  large  quantities  that  the  supply  is  not  likely 
to  fail  at  a  critical  moment. 

In  a  garden  of  any  size,  remote  from  companies' 
water  mains,  it  will  be  necessary  to  have  a  large  storage 


tank  erected  at  a  height  of  about  20  feet.  To  get 
the  water  into  the  tank  from  a  stream  or  a  well,  various 
kinds  of  pumps  are  used.  Windmills,  gas,  oil,  or 
electric  pumps,  "  rams,"  and  pulsometers  are  in  use, 
and  are  all  more  or  less  useful  for  throwing  large 
quantities  of  water.  Windmills  are  favoured  by  many 
growers.  They  have,  however,  the  drawback — so  far 
as  intensive  cultivation  is  concerned — of  lying  "  be- 
calmed "  on  a  broiling  hot  summer's  day  when  there 
is  not  enough  wind  to  stir  a  leaf,  and  perhaps  just 
when  the  crops  are  in  the  greatest  need  of  water. 
Assuming  that  water  is  available  in  sufficient  abund- 
ance, perhaps  a  pump  driven  by  a  gas,  oil,  or  electric 
engine  is  on  the  whole  most  reliable.  I  have  seen 
them  all  at  work,  and  consider  where  electric  current 
can  be  obtained  at  a  cheap  rate  from  adjacent  mains 
that  the  electric  pump  requires  the  least  outlay  of 
capital,  and  requires  the  minimum  of  attention.  I 
saw  such  an  electric  pump  at  work  in  the  outskirts  of 
Paris,  and  the  starting  and  stopping  was  simplicity 
itself — merely  pushing  a  small  lever  over  a  distance 
of  an  inch  or  two. 

Although  windmills  and  gas,  oil,  or  electric  pumps 
will  throw  large  quantities  of  water,  they  all  suffer 
from  one  drawback  in  common — namely,  that  the 
water  obtained  is  almost,  if  not  quite,  ice-cold  in 
winter.  The  application  of  ice-cold  water  to  tender 
crops  growing  in  a  temperature  of  from  65°  to  75°  Fahr. 
would  be  probably  fatal  to  the  plants.  If  not,  it  would 
at  least  cause  stagnation  of  growth,  and  induce  chills 
and  other  troubles.  For  this  reason  one  is  almost 
inclined  to  favour  the  "  pulsometer  "  as  a  suitable 
pumping-machine,  simply  because  it  takes  the  chill  off 


the  coldest  water,  and  in  winter-time  the  plants  and  soil 
may  be  moistened  with  water  of  a  genial  tepidity.  The 
great  drawback,  however,  to  a  "  pulsometef  "  seems 
to  be  that  it  will  not  pump  until  steam  has  been  "  got 
up  "  in  the  necessary  boiler  attached.  It  also  requires 
the  almost  constant  attendance  of  a  man  to  keep  the 
fire  well  fed  with  coke  or  coal ;  and  this  last  item  is 
likewise  a  source  of  considerable  expense. 

With  any  of  the  other  pumps  mentioned,  the  diffi- 
culty of  heating  the  water  in  the  storage  tank  may 
be  got  over  fairly  easily.  By  fixing  up  a  small,  ordinary 
"  saddle  "  boiler,  and  connecting  it  to  the  storage  tank 
with  a  '"  flow  "  and  "  return  "  pipe,  sufficient  heat 
will  be  generated  with  a  barrow-load  or  two  of  coke 
per  day  ;  so  that  the  temperature  of  the  water  is  easily 
raised  to  the  region  of  60°  to  70°  Fahr.,  or  even  more 
if  the  boiler  is  "  driven." 

.As  little  or  no  water  is  actually  applied  overhead 
directly  to  the  plants  growing  on  the  hot-beds  and 
under  cloches  during  the  coldest  period  of  the  year, 
say  from  November  or  December  till  March  or  April, 
the  question  of  heating  the  water  in  the  storage  tanks 
in  winter  is  not  of  paramount  importance  perhaps, 
unless  the  liquid  is  required  for  use  in  hot-houses  and 

CAPILLARY  ATTRACTION. — During  the  cold  winter 
season,  the  early  crops  in  the  frames  derive  all  the 
moisture  they  require  at  the  roots  from  the  rain- 
water that  runs  off  the  lights  on  to  the  rather  long, 
littery  manure  in  the  narrow  pathways  between  the 
hot-beds.  By  capillary  attraction  the  water  is  ab- 
sorbed from  the  sodden  pathways  to  the  centre  of 
the  beds  beneath  the  lights,  and  in  this  way  the 


tender  plants  secure  it  after  the  chill  has  been  taken 
off  by  the  warm  manure.  The  application  of  water 
in  this  indirect  way  also  accounts  for  the  narrowness 
of  the  hot-beds  used,  as  it  is  obvious  that  in  the  case 
of  wide  beds  it  would  be  impossible  for  the  water  to 
reach  the  centres  by  means  of  capillary  attraction 

The  crops  under  cloches,  of  course,  secure  moisture 
in  the  same  way,  only  more  easily. 

DISTRIBUTION  OF  THE  WATER. — To  secure  a  proper 
distribution  of  water  over  the  garden  it  is  advisable 
to  have  pipes  laid  on  from  the  storage  tank  or  a  com- 
pany's main.  The  pipes  should  be  3  or  4  in.  in 
diameter  to  secure  a  good  and  easy  flow  of  water  in 
all  directions.  If  the  tank  is  also  placed  sufficiently 
high — say,  20  to  25  feet — there  will  be  good  pressure 
of  water,  so  that  when  a  hose-pipe  is  attached  to  any 
of  the  stand  pipes — placed  at  regular  and  convenient 
intervals — it  will  be  possible  to  water  the  contents  of 
several  frames  without  inconvenience. 

In  addition  to  the  hose-pipes,  it  is  also  advisable 
during  the  summer  months  to  have  several  galvanised 
tanks,  or  even  barrels,  placed  where  they  are  most 
likely  to  be  useful  when  Melons  are  being  watered  by 
waterpots.  Indeed,  the  more  conveniently  a  garden 
and  its  appliances  are  arranged  the  better,  more 
comfortable,  and  the  more  economic  will  the  working 
be  on  the  whole.  A  slip-shod  or  ill-digested  scheme 
of  arrangement  is  likely  to  lead  to  endless  troubles 
afterwards,  when  it  may  be  difficult  to  rectify  defects 
without  considerable  expense. 



In  addition  to  a  plentiful  supply  of  water  there  must 
also  be  a  bounteous,  almost  a  prodigious,  quantity  of 
manure  available — and  the  best  stable  manure  into 
the  bargain  ;  otherwise  intensive  cultivation  is  quite 
out  of  the  question.  Good  stable  manure  costs  any- 
thing from  45.  to  75.  per  ton ;  and  1,000  tons 
annually  may  be  required  for  a  garden  of  two  acres. 
The  first  year,  naturally,  is  more  expensive  in  every 
way  than  succeeding  years,  and  with  the  progress 
of  time  somewhat  smaller  quantities  of  manure  may 

When  the  manure  becomes  old  or  spent  it  is  not 
useless.  It  gradually  becomes  trodden  down  into  fine 
black  particles,  and  in  this  condition  of  vegetable 
mould  is  a  most  important  ingredient  in  the  soil  of 
every  French  garden.  In  some  old  Parisian  gardens 
I  visited,  the  manure  of  former  years  covered  the 
original  soil  to  a  depth  of  two  or  three  feet,  and  it 
almost  felt  as  if  one  was  walking  on  a  velvet  pile 
carpet.  This  old  manure,  decayed  into  fine  particles, 
assumes  a  deeper  and  deeper  tint  with  age,  and  yields 
up  its  fertilising  foods  under  the  influence  of  air,  water, 
and  heat  for  the  benefit  of  the  crops  grown  upon  it. 
It  is  used  over  and  over  again  for  spreading  over  the 
open  borders,  over  the  hot  manure  in  the  frames,  and 
over  the  cloche  beds,  in  layers  of  varying  thickness, 
and  the  tender  rootlets  have  no  trouble  whatever  in 
penetrating  its  moist,  warm,  and  spongy  tissues. 

Besides  good  stable  manure,  other  manures — such 
as  that  from  cows,  pigs,  sheep,  etc. — are  also  freely 
used  by  some  growers,  as  well  as  night  soil  when  ob- 



tamable,  and  when  no  strong  objections  are  raised  on 
the  question  of  odour.  Many  French  housewives,  with 
characteristic  thrift,  never  waste  any  refuse  from  the 
house,  the  poultry  run,  or  the  kitchen  garden,  if  it  is 
likely  to  be  at  all  useful  in  the  culture  of  vegetables  or 
salads.  In  fact,  anything  in  the  shape  of  animal  or 
vegetable  refuse  is  carefully  preserved,  and  made  into 
a  compost  heap  mixed  with  leaves,  weeds,  and  soil. 
It  is  then  freely  and  frequently  drenched  with  soapy 
water  on  washing  days  as  well  as  with  any  other 
household  liquids  available.  In  due  course  this 
organic  refuse  (which  is  taken  away  by  the  dustman 
in  England)  becomes  converted  into  a  beautiful  rich 
and  friable  mould. 

Chemical  or  artificial  manures,  although  now  so 
extensively  employed  in  ordinary  gardening  practice, 
are  not  popular  with  intensive  cultivators.  And  it  is 
questionable,  even  in  the  event  of  stable  manure 
becoming  scarcer  owing  to  the  more  general  adoption 
of  motor-cars,  if  chemical  manures  would  ever 
produce  the  same  excellent  results  that  are  now 
secured  from  hot-beds  with  their  equable  and  genial 

The  use  of  hot-water  pipes  scarcely  requires  con- 
sideration for  somewhat  similar  reasons.  They  dry 
and  bake  and  parch  the  soil  so  regularly,  that  the 
tender  roots  of  crops  would  soon  be  shrivelled  up 
unless  the  lights  were  frequently  taken  oif  to  drench 
the  beds  with  water  :  and  this  is  a  dangerous  pro- 
ceeding during  the  winter  months,  and  likely  to  result 
in  total  loss  of  the  crops. 

TREATMENT  OF  A  MANURE  HEAP. — So  as  to  avoid 
waste  and  secure  the  best  results,  it  is  necessary  to 


manage  a  manure  heap  with  a  certain  amount  of  care 
and  intelligence.  During  the  summer  months  hot 
manure  is  not  required,  but  large  quantities  are  secured 
and  are  kept  in  reserve  until  autumn,  when  the  beds 
are  made.  On  the  outskirts  of  Paris  enormous  heaps 
of  manure  may  be  seen  during  the  summer  months, 
and  in  August  men  may  be  seen  with  bare  legs  and 
trousers  turned  up  to  the  knees,  turning  over  the 
heaps  and  watering  them  copiously.  The  straw  or 
litter  is  forked  out  and  kept  in  conical  heaps  by  itself. 
The  short  and  more  or  less  well-rotted  portion  which 
is  left  should  also  be  made  into  similar  conical  heaps, 
so  that  the  rain  may  run  off  more  easily  without 
making  the  heap  sodden.  The  liquid  from  a  manure 
heap,  however,  should  not  be  allowed  to  run  waste, 
as  it  contains  valuable  plant  foods.  If  allowed  to  run 
into  a  hollow  place  at  the  foot  of  the  heap,  the  liquid 
can  then  be  thrown  over  the  manure  from  time  to 
time,  thus  preventing  it  from  getting  too  hot  and 

It  sometimes  happens,  when  manure  is  improperly 
managed  by  leaving  the  rotted  and  unrotted  portions 
mixed  up  together  without  being  turned  and  watered, 
that  a  heap  catches  fire — much  in  the  same  way  that 
haystacks  do  in  summer  and  autumn,  owing  to  the 
enormous  heat  generated  by  decomposition  in  the 
interior.  Accidents  of  this  kind  are  very  costly,  and 
the  only  way  to  prevent  a  manure  heap  being  totally 
consumed  is  to  give  it  a  thorough  drenching  with 



From  October  till  the  end  of  March  hot-beds  are  in 
constant  use  for  the  production  of  early  crops.  As 
some  of  these  require  more  heat  than  others  it  is 
necessary  to  regulate  the  thickness  and  heat  of  the 
beds  according  to  the  season  and  the  crop  grown.  If 
the  temperature  is  too  high  there  is  great  danger  of 
the  plants  becoming  too  tender  and  "  sappy "  in 
growth  ;  they  are,  therefore,  likely  to  suffer  consider- 
ably when  exposed  during  the  cold  winter  months. 
On  the  other  hand,  just  the  right  temperature  must  be 
maintained  to  secure  the  maximum  amount  of  growth 
in  the  shortest  time,  coupled  with  careful  ventilation 
on  all  favourable  occasions. 

French  growers  usually  make  three  different  kinds 
of  beds  according  to  season  and  crop — namely,  (i) 
raised  hot-beds ;  (2)  sunken  beds  in  trenches  for 
melons ;  and  (3)  in  April  beds  made  from  spent 
manure  or  the  dark  mould  that  has  already  played  its 
part  in  the  production  of  previous  crops. 

Having  marked  out  by  means  of  pegs  and  lines 
where  the  beds  and  frames  and  cloches  are  to  be 
placed — bearing  in  mind  that  they  are  to  be  inclined 
towards  the  south,  south-east,  or  south-west — the 
manure  is  wheeled  on  to  the  ground  or  carried  on  the 
back  in  the  peculiar  wicker  baskets  called  "  hottes  " 
(see  figs.  13,  14,  p.  44). 

It  is  the  custom  to  make  the  beds  deeper  on  a  wet, 
heavy  soil  than  on  a  warm,  light,  sandy  one,  and  also 
to  make  narrow  beds  deeper  than  wide  ones.  Beds 
made  during  the  winter  months  are  also  thicker  in 
proportion  than  those  made  in  autumn  or  spring,  as 


greater  heat  is  required  to  resist  the  atmospheric 

The  most  reliable  manure  for  maintaining  a  good 
and  steady  heat  is  undoubtedly  stable  manure  well 
moistened  with  urine.  In  a  fresh  state  it  is  rarely 
used,  as  the  heat  generated  is  much  too  great,  being 
often  as  much  as  140°  to  160°  Fahr.  Fresh  manure  is 
brought  into  proper  condition  by  turning  it  over  two 
or  three  times  with  a  fork.  It  is  then  ready  for  use 
either  by  itself  when  great  heat  is  needed,  or  mixed 
with  older  and  less  active  manure  when  a  lower 
temperature  is  required. 

French  gardeners  make  their  hot-beds  about  5  ft. 
5  in.  in  width.  This  allows  4  ft.  5  in.  for  the 
frames,  or  three  rows  of  cloches  on  top  when  arranged 
as  shown  in  fig.  2.  A  pathway  about  i  ft.  wide  is 
thus  left  between  each  bed,  but  it  is  really  only  about 
9  or  10  in.,  as  the  manure  must  project  a  little  beyond 
the  frames.  The  length  of  the  beds  is  regulated  by 
the  number  of  frames  used  ;  but  five  frames  (carrying 
fifteen  lights)  are  generally  placed  one  after  the  other 
before  an  intersecting  pathway  is  made. 

When  actually  making  up  the  hot-beds  the  well- 
mixed  manure  should  be  placed  in  layers  over  the 
required  space,  taking  care  to  keep  the  edges  vertical. 
When  sufficient  manure  has  been  placed  in  position, 
it  should  be  trodden  down  well  with  the  feet,  and 
beaten  with  the  fork  to  secure  a  level  surface  and  equal 
density  throughout.  Any  hollow  places  must  be  filled 
up  with  more  manure,  until  the  proper  level  has  been 
reached.  When  complete,  the  whole  bed  should  be 
watered  all  over  if  inclined  to  be  dry,  so  that  it  is 
made  moist  enough  to  generate  a  steady  heat. 


When  making  beds  in  October  for  the  cultivation 
of  Lettuces,  they  need  not  be  more  than  8  in. 
in  depth.  A  fair  quantity  of  short  litter  should  be 
mixed  with  the  hot  and  fresh  manure,  because  at  this 
period  the  plants  do  not  require  heat  so  much  as  being 
kept  rather  dry  and  sufficiently  warm.  Beds  made 
in  November  should  be  somewhat  deeper,  and  made 
with  equal  parts  of  old  and  fresh  manure.  From  the 
commencement  of  December  the  beds  should  be 
from  12  to  14  in.  thick,  and  made  of  fresher  manure. 


This  is  necessary,  as  a  greater  and  more  steady  heat 
is  then  required  for  such  crops  as  Lettuces,  early 
Carrots,  and  Turnips. 

If  the  beds  are  to  be  covered  with  cloches,  the  surface 
should  have  a  layer  of  old  mould  spread  over  it  evenly. 
After  this  three  rows  of  cloches  are  placed  upon  each 
bed,  alternating  as  shown  in  fig.  2. 

When  the  beds  are  intended  to  carry  frames,  these 
may  be  placed  upon  them  as  soon  as  made,  and  when 
properly  arranged  in  straight  rows,  the  surface  of  the 
beds  may  be  covered  with  mould,  or  even  with  finely 
sifted  gritty  soil  in  the  springtime.  When  the  frames 
are  in  position,  the  "lights"  are  placed  upon  them, 
and  these  are  covered  with  mats  for  a  few  days  to 


hasten  the  more  rapid  heating  of  the  manure  in  the 

In  preparing  the  ground  to  be  occupied  by  a  rang* 
of  beds  the  work  is  carried  out  as  follows  :  The  soil  is 
taken  out  about  3  ft.  3  in.  wide  at  the  base  and  thrown 
into  a  raised  heap  or  ridge  the  length  of  the  range, 
so  as  not  to  hold  the  water,  or  to  drain  itself  if  already 
too  wet.  When  the  ground  for  the  first  row  of  frames 
has  been  treated  in  this  way,  the  soil  from  the  second 
row  is  used  for  placing  on  the  hot-bed  in  the  first  row, 
the  soil  from  the  third  is  placed  in  the  second,  and  so 
on  to  the  last  row. 

The  narrow  pathway  which  has  been  left  between 
each  row  of  frames  at  first  remains  empty  if  the  weather 
is  not  too  severe.  According,  however,  as  the  hot-beds 
begin  to  lose  some  of  their  heat,  the  pathways  between 
the  frames  are  filled  up,  or  "  lined,"  with  short  or 
strawy  litter,  not  short,  hot  manure.  This  is  moistened 
by  the  dripping  rain  from  the  lights,  and  with  the  heat 
from  the  beds,  the  manure  in  the  pathways  gradually 
generates  heat  and  serves  to  rekindle  or  conserve  the 
heat  in  the  beds  themselves  for  a  longer  period.  The 
ends  of  the  frames  are  banked  up  with  manure  about 
a  foot  deep,  as  are  also  the  sides  of  the  first  and  last 
row  of  the  entire  range,  so  that  eventually  all  the 
frames  look  as  if  they  were  embedded  up  to  the  lights 
in  a  sea  of  manure.  In  this  way  the  frames  at  the 
ends  of  the  rows  are  kept  as  warm  as  those  in  the 
centre.  This  is  an  important  consideration,  especially 
for  growers  who  wish  to  gather  an  entire  crop  at  once. 
It  is  from  the  wet  manure  in  these  narrow  pathways 
that  the  beds  in  the  frames  obtain  the  necessary  moisture 
during  the  winter  months,  by  capillary  attraction. 


When  these  hot-beds  are  freshly  made  and  very 
warm,  care  should  be  taken  not  to  sow  or  plant  until 
the  first  fierce  heat  from  the  manure  has  somewhat 
abated.  If  this  precaution  is  neglected  and  a  very 
high  temperature  develops,  it  may  be  necessary  to 
take  away  the  outside  banks  of  manure  from  the 
frames  so  as  to  cool  the  beds.  If  this  does  not  suffice, 
plenty  of  water  must  be  thrown  round  the  beds  and 
in  the  pathways  until  the  temperature  sinks  to  the 
required  degree. 


As  much  has  recently  been  heard  as  to  the  great 
profits  obtainable  from  an  acre  or  two  of  ground 
cultivated  on  the  French  system,  it  may  be  of  interest 
to  consider  the  approximate  cost  of  establishing  a 
garden,  the  annual  expenditure  on  the  same,  and  the 
returns  that  are  likely  to  be  secured  from  markets  in 
a  fairly  normal  state  of  trade. 

Taking  an  ordinary  French  garden  devoted  mainly 
to  producing  early  crops,  one  rarely  finds  more  than 
300  frames,  or  900  lights,  or  more  than  3,000  cloches. 
As  the  frames  and  lights  are  moved  off  one  crop  on 
to  another,  it  is  advisable  to  have  extra  land  avail- 
able so  that  the  changes  and  rotations  necessary  may 
be  carried  out  without  difficulty. 

Generally  speaking,  it  is  more  economical  in  pro- 
portion to  cultivate  two  acres  than  one,  as  the 
initial  outlay  is  almost  the  same  in  both  cases  for 
establishment^expenses.  « 


Taking  the  various  items  separately  for  establishment 
we  arrive  at  the  following  figures  : 



£     s.    d. 

Water-tank,  tower,  pumping-engine,  stand- 
pipes,  fences,  etc.,  say. .         . .          . .  *2OO     o     o 

3,000  Cloches  @  £5  per  100          . .          . .  150     o     o 

900  Lights,  painted  and  glazed,  @  6/6  each  292  10     o 

300  Frames  for  same  @  8/-  each  . .          . .  120     o     o 

700  Rye-straw  mats  @  £5  per  100         . .  35     o     o 

Horse,  Cart  and  Harness,  say       . .         . .  ^60     o     o 

6  zinc  French  waterpots  @  I5/-  each    . .  4  10     o 

3  Spades  @  4/6      . .          o  13     6 

2  Forks  @  3/6          070 

2  American  Rakes,  14  teeth,  @  3/-  each . .  060 
i  Manure  Basket  with  straps       . .          . .  o  17     6 

i  Manure  Stand,  iron          i     o     o 

i  Wheelbarrow         . .          . .          . .         . .  i     o     o 

3  Hose  pipes,  say    . .          . .          . .          . .  600 

Dibbers,  lines,  tilts,  handbarrow,  etc.,  say  i  16     o 

Packing  Shed,  say  . .          . .          . .          . .  20     o     o 

Miscellaneous,  say 30    o     o 

Total       ..         ..  £924     o     o 

*  If  water  can  be  obtained  easily  and  at  a  specially  cheap 
rate  from  a  water  company,  there  would  be  no  need  to  go  to 
the  expense  of  sinking  a  well,  erecting  a  water-tower  and 
tank,  or  for  having  a  pumping-engine.  This  sum  might, 
therefore,  be  reduced  by  say  ^150,  making  the  total  outlay 
£774  instead  of  ^924. 

f  This  expense  need  not  be  incurred  the  first  year,  perhaps, 
unless  it  can  be  well  afforded. 




£  s.  d. 

Manure,  1,000  tons  @  5/-  per  ton          . .     250  o  o 

Labour           . .          . .          . .          . .          . .     260  o  o 

Maintenance  of  Horse  (see  note,  p.  25)   ..       30  o  o 

Rent,  Rates,  Taxes,  Insurance     . .          . .       50  o  o 

Miscellaneous  Expenses,  including  cost  of 

Seeds,  say          . .          . .         . .          . .       40  o  o 

Total       ..          ..  £630     o     o 



£  s.  d. 

Lettuces,  say            250  o  o 

Cauliflowers,  say      . .          . .          . .          . .       80  o  o 

Melons,  say  . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  150  o  o 

Carrots,  say  . .          . .          . .          . .          . .  125  o  o 

Radishes,  say           . .          . .          . .          . .  125  o  o 

Endives,  say            . .          . .          . .          . .       25  o  o 

Corn  Salad,  say       . .         . .         . .         . .       10  o  o 

Spinach,  say ..         ..         ..         ..         .,       10  o  o 

Cabbages,  say          . .          . .          . .          . .       10  o  o 

Celery,  say    . .          . .          . .          . .          . .       10  o  o 

Turnips,  say             . .          . .          . .          . .       15  o  o 

Asparagus,     Dwarf     Beans,     Cucumbers, 

Strawberries,  Tomatoes,  etc.,  say       . .     50  o  o 

Total       . .         . .  £860    o    o 



Dr.        RECEIPTS. 

£       5.      d. 

As  per  Table  III.     860     o     o 


£  s.    d. 

As  per  Table  II.     630  o     o 

Profit     . .          . .      230  o     o 


From  the  figures  given  above  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
expenditure  of  a  French  garden  is  very  great  for  the 
first  year — £924  sunk  in  capital,  and  £630  in  expenses, 
making  £1,554  altogether.  Out  of  this  sum,  however, 
under  proper  management  and  with  normal  markets,  it 
is  estimated  that  £860  of  the  outlay  would  be  returned. 
This  represents  a  profit  for  the  year  of  £230,  or  nearly 
25  per  cent,  on  the  capital.  It  may  therefore  be 
assumed  that  at  the  end  of  four  years  not  only  would 
the  capital  be  paid  back,  but  all  expenses  would  be 
paid  into  the  bargain.  Under  exceptionally  favourable 
circumstances,  this  desirable  result  may  possibly  be 
attained  at  the  end  of  three  years  ;  but  it  is  difficult 
to  see  how  it  could  be  accomplished  much  sooner. 
On  the  other  hand,  if  the  freehold  of  the  garden  is 
purchased,  and  a  good  house  be  erected  on  the  land, 
it  may  possibly  take  six  or  eight  years  to  wipe  out 
the  capital  and  expenses,  before  one  can  really  look 
upon  the  results  of  his  work  as  being  pure  profit. 

It  will  be  understood,  of  course,  that  the  figures 
given  are  only  approximate,  although  the  prices  of 
cloches,  frames,  mats,  and  tools  may  be  regarded  as 
fairly  accurate.  Much  more  money  may  be  spent  on 
these  articles,  but  an  ingenious  man  will  find  he  can 
economise  in  many  ways.  For  example,  it  is  possible 


to  make  his  own  frames,  to  paint  and  glaze  his  own 
lights,  to  make  his  own  tilts,  manure  stands,  etc. 
He  may  also  be  able  to  dispense  with  a  horse  and  cart, 
although  he  would  probably  find  this  difficult  in  an 
out-of-the-way  place. 

So  far  as  the  figures  for  the  produce  are  concerned, 
the  estimates  have  been  based  on  rather  low  average 
prices  in  the  markets.  It  has  been  computed  that 
the  produce  from  each  light  realises  205.,  and  from 
each  cloche  2s.  On  this  basis  the  nine  hundred  lights 
given  above  would  yield  £900,  and  the  three  thousand 
cloches  £300 — making  £1,200  per  annum  from  these 
two  sources  alone.  I  am  inclined  to  think  these 
figures,  however,  are  too  high. 

Besides  the  crops  mentioned,  there  are  others 
that  might  be  looked  upon  as  a  source  of  revenue 
even  in  a  garden  of  two  acres,  such  for  instance  as 
Strawberries,  Tomatoes,  Early  Potatoes,  and  some 
others  referred  to  at  pp.  62,  63.  It  would  be  safer,  how- 
ever, for  the  beginner  to  confine  his  attention  strictly 
to  those  crops  that  can  be  grown  economically  in 
bulk  and  fetch  the  best  prices.  Afterwards,  when 
he  feels  more  sure  of  his  ground,  other  crops  might 
be  grown  if  considered  desirable  and  sufficiently 


Perhaps  one  of  the  most  difficult  problems  con- 
nected with  commercial  gardening  is  the  disposal 
of  the  produce  at  such  a  price  as  to  yield  reasonable 
profits.  In  this  connection  much  depends  not  only 
upon  the  way  the  "  stuff  "  is  grown,  but  also  upon 


the  way  it  is  prepared  for  sale.  It  is  well  known 
that  the  very  finest  produce  in  the  world  stands  a  very 
poor  chance  of  selling  at  all,  unless  it  is  packed  in  a 
neat,  cleanly,  and  attractive  way.  The  almighty 
greengrocer  is  often  the  most  important  factor  to 
be  considered,  and  his  judgment  is  generally  final. 
Caterers  for  large  establishments  also  have  keen  eyes 
for  the  way  produce  is  exposed  for  sale  ;  and  the 
grower  or  his  agent  must  not  be  surprised  at  any 
uncomplimentary  references  to  his  vegetables  and 
salads  if  they  are  not  packed  in  such  a  way  as  to 
command  approval  or  to  attract  ready  and  favourable 
attention.  It  is  therefore  of  the  utmost  importance 
that  Lettuces,  Carrots,  Radishes,  Cauliflowers,  Turnips, 
etc.,  should  be  prepared  for  sale  and  as  carefully 
packed  as  possible.  There  are  now  many  kinds  of 
crates,  boxes,  and  baskets  in  use — some  made  of 
willow,  others  of  thin  strips  of  wood,  all  combining 
lightness  with  cheapness  and  neatness.  All  root  crops 
like  Turnips,  Radishes,  and  Carrots  are  of  course 
nicely  washed  and  cleaned  before  or  after  bunching  ; 
while  crops  like  Cauliflowers,  Cabbages,  Lettuces, 
etc.,  have  the  roots,  stems,  and  all  unnecessary  or 
useless  leaves  taken  away.  Each  crop  indeed  is 
prepared  and  packed  in  accordance  with  what  practice 
has  found  out  to  be  the  best ;  but  that  does  not 
preclude  any  one  from  improving  upon  the  present 
methods,  if  he  sees  a  reasonable  chance  of  doing  so. 
Originality,  combined  with  neatness  and  good  pro- 
duce, very  often  means  remarkably  quick  sales. 

If  a  grower  does  not  go  to  market  himself,  or  sell 
direct  to  his  own  customers,  he  must  of  necessity 
send  his  produce  to  a  commission  salesman  in  one 


or  other  of  the  great  markets  :  and  herein  lies  one 
of  the  great  dangers  of  the  business.  There  are 
undoubtedly  salesmen  of  repute  in  all  the  best  markets 
who  do  their  best  for  their  clients  in  selling  at  the 
highest  prices  ;  and  they  return  these  prices  to  the 
grower,  less  the  legitimate  commission  to  which 
they  are  entitled.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  how- 
ever, it  is  unfortunately  too  true  that  letters  appear 
frequently  in  the  trade  papers  from  growers  who 
relate  that  not  only  do  they  receive  but  little,  or 
even  nothing,  for  the  goods  sent  to  the  salesman, 
but  in  some  cases  the  latter  individual  actually  sends 
in  a  charge  for  expenses  incurred  in  disposing  of  the 
produce  !  This,  coupled  with  the  high  railway  rates— 
which  are  in  themselves  equivalent  to  a  protective 
tariff — often  drives  the  grower  of  good  produce  to 
despair.  It  is  rare,  however,  that  one  hears  of  a 
commission  agent  entering  the  bankruptcy  court. 


The  figures  given  in  the  preceding  pages  refer  to 
the  establishment  and  maintenance  of  a  "  French 
Garden "  on  strictly  commercial  and  professional 
lines,  and  they  may  well  cause  the  amateur  to  pause 
before  embarking  on  such  a  system  of  cultivation. 
Where,  however,  one  has  a  small  piece  of  ground  at 
his  disposal — say  only  10  or  20  poles — there  is  no 
reason  why  he  should  not  practise  the  art  on  a  small 
scale,  and  at  comparatively  little  expense.  It  must 
be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that  as  the  cloches  and 
lights  frequently  require  attention  in  regard  to  closing 
and  opening  (i.e.  putting  on  air  and  taking  it  off),  as 
well  as  shading,  the  amateur  must  either  be  at  hand 


to  attend  to  these  operations  himself,  or  must  delegate 
the  duties  to  some  intelligent  member  of  his  house- 
hold. Otherwise  his  crops  are  sure  to  suffer. 

In  large  private  establishments  (as  distinguished 
from  purely  commercial  ones)  the  proprietors  fre- 
quently employ  gardeners  skilled  in  the  production 
of  fruits,  flowers,  and  vegetables.  Where  these  are 
grown  early  in  hothouses  perhaps  the  system  of 
cloches,  hot-beds,  and  lights  will  not  appeal  very 
strongly.  In  cases,  however,  where  there  is  but 
little  or  no  glass,  one  might  do  worse  than  invest 
in  two  or  three  hundred  cloches  and  a  few  frames 
and  lights — bearing  in  mind  that  there  ought  to  be 
a  good  supply  of  water  always  available. 

It  is  impossible  to  estimate  exactly  the  probable 
outlay  and  annual  expenses  that  would  be  incurred 
by  any  particular  amateur,  but  as  may  be  seen  from 
the  figures  below,  a  good  deal  could  be  done  by  the 
outlay  of  £20,  and  more  of  course  in  proportion  to 
what  is  spent.  For  a  small  garden  the  following 
estimate  may  serve  as  an  example  : 

£     *.  d. 
ioo  Cloches    ..          ..         ..          ..          ..       600 

6  Frames  @  io/-  each      . .          . .          . .       300 

18  Lights  @  7/6  each        . .          . .         . .       6  15     o 

18  Mats  @  1/6  each  170 

Tools  and  Sundry  Expenses,  say  . .       300 

Total  Cost  of  Establishment          . .  £20     2     o 

The  prices  quoted  are  higher  than  those  given  on 
p.  25,  as  small  purchasers  usually  have  to  pay  more 
for  material  than  large  ones. 


The   annual   expenses   incurred   in   such   a   garden 
might  be  given  thus  : 

i       5.    d. 

Manure,  10  tons    @    6/-  per  ton    . .          . .       300 

Labour  ..          ..          ..          ..          ..       500 

Sundries  200 

£10     o     o 

These  figures  are  given  on  the  assumption  that  the 
amateur  attends  to  the  business  himself,  and  employs 
only  occasional  labour  to  help  with  making  the  beds, 

The  produce  from  the  lights  and  cloches  ought  to 
be  worth  the  same  price  at  least  to  the  amateur  as 
it  fetches  in  market.  The  annual  value  therefore 
would  be  as  follows  : 

£  s.  d. 

Produce  of  18  Lights  @  i5/-  each         . .      13  10     o 
,,       ,,    100  Cloches  @  1/6  each       . .       7  10     o 

Total    . .          . .  £21     o     o 

So  that  at  the  end  of  the  first  year,  having  spent  £30 
altogether,  the  return  would  be  only  fy  short  of  the 
total  expense.  On  the  same  basis,  there  should  be 
a  clear  profit  of  £11  the  second  and  succeeding  years, 
equivalent  to  55  per  cent,  on  the  capital  outlay. 


For  intensive  cultivation  special  appliances  are 
necessary  to  enable  the  gardener  to  secure  the  best 
results.  The  most  important  will  now  be  considered. 


FRAMES. — These  are  made  of  deal  planks  about 
an  inch  or  more  in  thickness.  Those  used  at  the 
back  are  generally  9  in.  wide,  those  in  front  being 
an  inch  or  two  narrower.  Each  frame  is  13  ft.  long 
and  4  ft.  5  in.  wide  and  is  built  to  take  three  lights ; 
so  that  two  men  can  easily  move  a  frame  from  one 
place  to  another.  The  ends  of  the  frames  are  often 
made  of  oak,  and  the  four  planks  are  nailed  together, 
having  a  stout  oak  post  at  each  corner.  The  back 
posts  are  13  or  14  in.  long,  those  in  front  being 


10  or  ii  in.,  the  tops  in  both  cases  being  flush  with 
the  upper  edge  of  the  boards.  This  gives  a  slope 
to  the  frames  and  not  only  throws  off  the  rain  into 
the  pathways,  but  also  catches  the  rays  of  the  sun 
better.  Movable  bars  connect  back  and  front  planks 
for  supporting  the  lights  in  the  usual  way.  With  fair 
wear  and  tear  the  frames  last  about  fifteen  years. 
Fig.  3  shows  a  frame  for  three  lights,  the  "  rests  "  on 
the  front  plank  being  to  prevent  the  lights  slipping 
off  when  lifted  up  for  watering. 

LIGHTS. — The  size  favoured  by  French  growers  is 
4  ft.  5  in.  by  4  ft.  3  in.  Where  durability  and  economy 
are  taken  into  account  the  frames  of  the  lights  are 
generally  made  of  oak.  The  bottom  rail,  however, 



is  often  made  of  iron,  as  it  is  more  liable  to  rot  from 
the  water.  In  the  latest  make  the  sash  bars — of  which 
there  are  three — are  also  made  of  iron,  and  are  as 
narrow  as  possible,  consistent  with  firmness,  so  that 
the  maximum  amount  of  light  is  given  to  the  plants 
when  necessary. 

The  lights  are  painted  and  glazed  in  the  usual 
way,  except  that  top-putty  is  used  on  iron  sash  bars  ; 
and  the  smallest  pane  of  glass  is  kept  at  the  bottom, 
because  it  runs  greater  risk  of  being  broken  than  the 
others  ;  consequently  it  is  not  so  difficult  or  costly  to 

It  may  be  mentioned  that  the  frames  and  lights 
in  French  gardens  are  narrow  for  scientific  as  well 
as  useful  reasons.  In  winter,  when  it  would  be  danger- 
ous to  water  the  early  crops  with  cold  water,  the 
necessary  moisture  is  obtained  from  the  wet  manure 
in  the  narrow  pathways  by  capillarity.  If  the  frames 
were  too  wide,  water  would  not  be  attracted  so  far 
as  the  centre  of  the  bed,  hence  the  plants  there  would 
suffer  from  drought. 

CLOCHES.— This  name  for  "  bell  glasses  "  has  be- 
come almost  an  English  word  now,  so  it  may  be 
retained  without  inconvenience  in  this  work.  Cloches 
have  been  in  constant  use  in  French  gardens  since 
about  the  year  1623 — nearly  three  hundred  years — 
although  originally  they  are  said  to  have  come  from 
Italy.  They  have  naturally  undergone  considerable 
modification  in  that  time.  The  best  cloches  are  made 
in  Lorraine,  and  measure  about  17  in.  in  diameter 
across  the  mouth,  and  about  15  in.  in  height 
(see  fig.  4).  Each  one  weighs  about  5^-  lb.,  and 
will  hold  about  6  gallons  of  water.  The  cloches  are 


made  of  clear  glass  with  a  slightly  bluish  tint  as  a 
protection  against  strong  sunshine.  Formerly  cloches 
had  a  knob  on  top,  but  as  this  acted  like  a  lens  and 
burned  the  plants  beneath,  those  without  knobs  are 
now  preferred,  and  generally 
used.  It  has  been  computed 
that  something  like  five  or 
six  millions  are  in  use  in 
French  gardens.  It  is  con- 
sidered more  economical  to 
order  200  or  300  at  one 
time,  as  small  packages  are  FlG-  4— CLOCHE  COVERING 

..   ,  .  ,       ,  ..  CABBAGE  LETTUCES. 

more  liable  to  be  broken  in 

passing  from  hand  to  hand.     English  glass  makers,  I 

believe,  are  waking  up  to  the  fact  that  there  is  likely 

to  be  a  trade  in  bell-glasses  for  intensive  gardening 

purposes,  so  that  growers  will  have    an   opportunity 

of   encouraging    home    industries,    if   the    prices    are 


Cloches,  being  obviously  fragile,  a  good  deal  of 
care  is  necessary  in  handling  them.  They  are  generally 
placed  in  stacks  of  three,  and  by  means  of  a  specially 


constructed  frame  one  man  can  carry  as  many  as 
twelve — weighing  about  66  Ib. — at  one  time.  He  carries 
two  stacks  of  three,  back  to  back,  in  front  of  him, 
and  two  similar  stacks  behind  him  on  the  frame. 
So  that  the  cloches  shall  not  roll  off,  the  cross-pieces 


next  the  man  are  slightly  lower  than  those  at  the 

ends  (see  fig.  5). 

The  cloche  carrier  is  only  used  for  long  distances. 

For  a  short  distance  a  man  can  easily  carry  three 

cloches  in   each  hand  by  inserting   a  finger  between 


When  the  cloches  are  not  in  use  they  are  stacked 

away  carefully  in  piles   of  any  number  up   to  ten. 

Five,  however,  is  a  safer  number,  as  shown  in  fig.  6. 

Formerly  wisps  of  straw,  hay,  or  litter  were  placed 
between  them  to  prevent  breakages. 
It  was  found,  however,  that  if  the 
straw  became  wet  the  cloches  were 
liable  to  crack.  Now  they  are  placed 
on  firm  ground  on  which  some  straw 
or  litter  has  been  spread.  A  small 
square  piece  of  wood  or  block,  as 

FIG.  6-CLocHEs     shown    in  the   fi£ure>   is  Put    on    the 

STACKED       UP     top    of    the    first     cloche     before   the 

WHEN  NOT    IN     second  is  placed  on  it.     This  prevents 

one  cloche  touching  the  other,  and  if 

the  work  is  done  properly  the  upper  cloche  will  turn 

round  easily  on  the  lower.     It  is  hardly  necessary  to 

say  that  the  cloches  are  placed  in  positions   sheltered 

from  strong  winds,  otherwise  an  unexpected  hurricane 

might  do  considerable  damage.     The  stacks  of  cloches 

are  placed  in  rows  alternating  with  each  other,  and 

as  a  protection  against  sudden  hailstorms  in  summer 

they  are  covered  with  straw  or  old  mats.     During  the 

winter  months  it  is  never  wise  to  place  the  cloches  on 

their  side  when  not  in  use,  as  the  side  touching  the 

ground  is  likely  to  drop  out  if  surprised  by  a  hard 

frost,  and  especially  if  there  is  any  water  inside. 


The  interior  of  the  cloches  is  kept  clean  by  washing 
every  year  about  November,  when  there  is  little 
danger  of  the  sun  causing  the  young  plants  beneath 
to  flag  or  "  wilt."  A  wisp  of  hay,  or  old  rye  mat 
tied  in  the  middle,  makes  a  rough  brush  for  the  purpose. 
The  cloche  is  plunged  into  a  tub  of  water,  and  as  it  is 
twirled  round  with  one  hand  the  interior  is  brushed 
with  the  other.  The  glass  is  then  well  rinsed  and 
comes  out  perfectly  clean  and  as  good  as  new.  There 
is  no  need  to  wash  the  outer  surface,  as  this  is  kept 
sufficiently  clean  by  the  rain.  During  the  summer 
months,  however,  some  of  the  cloches  are  covered 
with  whiting  for  shading  purposes,  but  this  is  easily 
removed  by  the  hand  when  washing  the  glasses. 

Occasionally  a  cloche  gets  broken,  and  old  French 
gardeners  became  experts  at  putting  the  pieces  to- 
gether when  prices  ruled  high.  Those  I  have  seen 
in  gardens  near  Paris  were  mended  with  strips  of 
linen  or  pieces  of  glass  and  white  lead  placed  over  the 
cracks.  Curiously  enough  a  once-broken  glass  gener- 
ally has  a  long  life  after  being  mended,  as  it  is  handled 
with  more  than  usual  care.  Now,  however,  it  is 
scarcely  worth  while  mending-  badly  broken  cloches, 
as  they  are  so  moderate  in  price — about  £5  to  £6  per 
100.  Some  of  the  special  sticking  glues  like  Seccotine 
would  probably  be  a  great  improvement  on  the  white 
lead  and  linen  method. 

By  the  use  of  cloches  the  gardener  is  enabled  not 
only  to  protect  tender  plants  from  the  cold  and  wet 
during  the  worst  period  of  the  year,  but  owing  to  the 
genial  temperature  beneath  them,  he  can  also  raise 
his  plants  more  quickly  than  in  the  open  air  in  the 
ordinary  way.  By  constant  use  over  the  plants, 



having  due  regard  to  ventilation  and  shading,  each 
cloche  serves  all  the  purposes  of  a  miniature  forcing 

MATS. — As  one  might  expect,  coverings  of  mats 
or  sacks  were  in  use  to  protect  plants  long  before  even 
cloches  or  frames  were  thought  of.  In  these  days 
the  mats  mostly  in  use  are  made  of  rye  straw.  Each 
mat  is  about  5  ft.  to  6  ft. 
6  in.  long,  and  4  ft.  6  in.  wide, 
weighs  about  n  or  12  lb., 
and  is  kept  together  by  means 
of  five  strings  running  across 
the  straw  stems  (see  fig.  7). 
Before  use  the  mats  are  steeped 
in  a  solution  of  copper  sul- 
phate not  only  to  preserve 
them,  but  also  to  prevent  rats 
and  mice  from  gnawing  them, 
and  to  keep  off  fungoid  diseases. 


Each  mat  costs  about  is.  2d. 

to  is.  6d.,  and  with  fair  wear  and  tear  ought  to  last 
three  or  four  seasons. 

The  mats  are  useful  not  only  for  protecting  the 
plants  in  the  frames  or  under  the  cloches  from  severe 
frosts  in  winter,  but  in  summer  time  they  are  almost 
as  much  in  evidence  for  shading  the  lights  and  cloches 
from  the  scorching  rays  of  the  sun.  Old  mats  are 
useful  for  covering  the  cloches  that  are  stacked  up  in 
summer,  to  protect  them  against  the  sudden  hail- 
storms that  often  do  much  damage.  Although  the 
rye-straw  mats  are  reasonably  cheap,  it  may  be 
worth  while  to  make  them  in  gardens  when  bad 
weather  prevents  the  employees  from  doing  other  work. 



Boys,  girls,  or  women  would  probably  become  more 
expert  at  mat-making  in  a  much  shorter  time  than 
men.  A  smart  willing  lad  should  earn  from  30  to 
50  per  cent,  more  per  day  than  a  man  at  making  mats. 
A  special  frame  is  used  for  the  purpose,  but  I  have 
seen  mats  made  on  the  wooden  floor  of  a  barn  equally 
well.  The  frame  consists 
of  two  pieces  of  wooden 
batten  3  or  4  in.  wide,  and 
6  ft.  or  more  in  length, 
as  desired.  These  battens 
form  the  side  pieces,  and 
are  kept  the  required  dis- 
tance apart  by  the  inser- 
tion of  two  cross  battens 
about  5  ft.  long — one  at 
the  end,  and  the  other  at 
any  desired  distance  from 
it,  according  to  the  length 

8. — FRAME     FOR 


(i)  Side  boards  ;  (A)  Cross-bar 
to  keep  sides  equidistant.  (5) 
Strings  strained  tightly  from  nails 
at  each  end.  (E)  Reel  or  bobbin 
for  twine.  (F)  showing  loop  made 
when  sewing. 

of  the  mat.     Four  or  five 

nails  or  pegs  are  stuck  into 

the  cross  pieces,  at  equal 

distances    apart,    cord    or 

tarred  twine  is  then  tightly 

stretched  from  one  nail  to 

another.      The  straw  is  now  taken  in  handfuls  and 

spread  evenly  across  the  strings  on  the  frame  —  the  cut 

ends  being  pushed  against  the  side  battens.     Sewing 

now  takes  place.      A  quantity  of  string  or  twine  is 

wound  on  a  bobbin  or  reel  about  6  in.   long.     The 

string  is  passed  over  the  straw,  under  the  bottom 

string,   made  into  a  loop  knot,  and  pulled  tight,  so 

that  each  layer  of  straw  is  pressed  close  up  and  does 


not  exceed  three-quarters  of  an  inch  in  thickness.  A 
similar  tie  is  made  at  each  string,  passing  always  from 
the  centre  to  one  side  or  the  other.  Handful  after 
handful  of  straw  is  added  and  sewn  in  the  way 
described,  until  a  mat  of  the  required  length  has  been 
made.  The  mat  is  then  detached,  and  the  strings  at 
each  end  are  knotted  up  tightly  to  prevent  un- 
ravelling. Any  ragged  edges  may  be  cut  with  shears 
or  scissors. 

Where  an  abundance  of  straw  from  rye  or  wheat 
is  obtainable  cheaply,  it  might  well  be  utilised  for 
making  mats.  The  chief  points  to  bear  in  mind  are 
to  add  the  same  quantity  of  straw  each  time  and 
keep  it  even  and  regular. 

To  preserve  the  mats,  they  are  immersed  in  a  large 
wooden  bath  or  cement  tank,  in  which  a  copper 
sulphate  solution  has  been  prepared.  This  solution 
is  made  by  dissolving  from  6  to  8  Ib.  of  sulphate  of 
copper  in  22  gallons  of  water.  When  well  saturated 
with  the  solution,  the  mats  may  be  taken  out  and 
hung  up  to  dry. 

FRAME  "  TILTS." — This  is  the  technical  name  given 
to  small  blocks  of  wood,  or  sometimes  brickbats  or 
flower-pots,    used    for    propping    up  the 
lights  of  the  frames  either  at  the  top  or 
bottom,  or  on  one  side  or  the  other.     As 
more  air  is  given  at  one  time  than  another 
according  to  the  season,  the  temperature, 
FIG.  9.—       an(j   the   force  of   the  wind,  the  tilts,  as 
used  in  frames,  are   usually   made    with 
two  or  three  notches— so  that  much  or  little  air  can 
be  given  at  will  as  shown  in  fig.  9.     The  tilt  may  be 
used  in  four  different    ways  :    (i)  flat    on    the    side, 


(2)  on  the  first  notch,  (3)  on  the  second  notch,  and 
(4)  on  the  top  notch.  When  the  plants  are  young 
and  tender  the  tilt  is  usually  placed  on  its  side.  As 
the  plants  increase  in  size  and  sturdiness,  however,  a 
little  more  air  may  be  given,  and  notches  i,  2,  and  3 
are  utilised  in  turn. 

To  avoid  straining  the  framework  of  the  lights 
when  giving  air,  the  tilt  should  be  placed  near  the 
middle  of  the  rail  at  the  side,  or  at  the  top  or  bottom, 
instead  of  being  nearer  to  one  end  or  to  one  side 
than  to  the  other. 

Another  important  point  to  remember  is,  not  to 
tilt  the  lights  on  the  side  facing  towards  the  wind, 
but  on  the  side  away  from  it.  The  wind  thus  passes 
over  the  frames  without  causing  a  cold  draught. 
Should  the  lights  be  raised  on  the  wrong  side,  the 
wind  enters  freely  and  causes  the  leaves  to  "  flag  " 
or  wilt,  and  they  may  perhaps  receive  a  check  from 
which  they  never  recover.  Besides,  there  is  another 
danger  from  raising  the  lights  on  the  wrong  side,  viz. 
that  a  strong  breeze  may  easily  lift  the  lights  from  their 
position,  and  break  a  considerable  amount  of  glass. 

It  may  be  as  well  to  mention — although  it  is  well 
known  to  practical  men — that  when  plants  have  been 
exposed  for  a  week  or  ten  days  to  the  greatest  possible 
amount  of  air  that  can  be  given  by  the  tilt  standing 
upright,  they  will  have  become  so  hardened  off 
that  the  lights  themselves  may  be  taken  off  altogether 
on  bright  genial  days.  In  addition  to  experience, 
the  state  of  the  weather  and  the  season  will,  however, 
guide  one  as  to  whether  it  is  safe  to  leave  the  lights 
off  during  the  night  time  or  not. 

CLOCHE  TILTS. — It  is  quite  as  necessary  at  times 



FIG.  11. — TILT 

to  give  air  to  the  plants  beneath  cloches  as  it  is  to 
those  in  frames  or  greenhouses.      Special  tilts  (called 
"  fourchettes  "   by  the   French  gardeners)    are   made 
for    this.      They    consist    of 
a  narrow,  triangular  piece  of 
wood,    about    10    or    12    in. 
long,    made    out     of    slating 
battens  or  staves,  and  with  a 
couple  of  notches  taken  out 
at  right  angles  on  the  longer 

FIG.  10. — TILT 

SHOWING   side,   or    hypoteneuse,   some- 
what   as    shown    in    fig.    10. 
The    pointed    end     is    stuck 
into  the  ground  and  the  cloche  is  lifted  so 
that  the  rim  may  rest  on  either  the  first  or  second 
notch,  as  shown  in  fig.  12. 

Very  often  before  the  cloche  is  lifted  on  to  the 
first  notch,  when  the  plants  are  still  very  young  and 

tender,  a  depression  is  made 
close  to  the  rim,  by  pressing 
the  closed  fist  into  the  spongy 
surface  of  the  bed. 

When  "  air  is  taken  off," 
that  is,  when  the  cloches  are 
let  down  flat  on  the  bed  again, 
it  is  done  by  placing  the  index 
finger  on  top  of  the  tilt  and 
pressing  it  backwards.  The 
cloche  then  drops  to  the  sur- 
face by  its  own  weight.  In 

this  way    it    does  not  occupy   much  time   to   "  take 
the   air  off  "   a  few  hundred  cloches. 

If,  however,  the  cloche  tilt  is  badly  made,  and  has 



the  notches  at  any  angle  less  than  a  right  angle,  it 
will  be  impossible  to  take  off  the  air  with  the  finger 
only,  in  the  way  described.  Both  hands  will  have 
to  be  used,  and  this  means  considerable  waste  of  time. 
A  badly-made  cloche  tilt  is  shown  at  fig.  n. 

The  cloches  are,  naturally,  tilted  up  on  the  side 
away  from  the  wind,  and  if  the  tilt  is  firmly  fixed  in 
the  soil,  there  is  little  danger  of  the  glasses  being 
blown  about  by  ordinary  breezes.  Sometimes,  how- 
ever, a  storm  springs  up  suddenly,  and  then  the 
damage  to  the  cloches  is  likely  to  be  great. 

HAND-BARROWS. — These  are  similar  to  those  in 
use  in  English  nurseries,  but  have  no  legs.  They  are 
useful  for  carrying  lights,  etc.,  in  the  narrow  alleys 
between  the  frames. 

MANURE  BASKET. — Owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
ranges  of  frames  have  pathways  of  a  foot  or  less 
between  them,  it  is  obvious  that  a  man  could  not 
use  an  ordinary  wheelbarrow  between  them  for 
carrying  manure  or  soil.  The  pathways  are  narrow 
chiefly  to  economise  space  (owing  to  the  high  rents 
in  Paris  arid  the  cost  of  manure),  and  even  the 
handles  of  the  lights  are  on  top  of  the  rails  in- 
stead of  the  ends,  so  that  another  inch  or  two 
of  valuable  space  may  be  secured.  To  enable  the 
gardeners,  therefore,  to  get  between  the  beds  and 
frames,  a  peculiar  shaped  wicker  basket  called  a 
"  hotte "  is  used  for  carrying  manure,  etc.  This 
"  hotte "  (see  fig.  13)  has  almost  a  straight  back, 
in  front  of  which  are  two  straps  which  fit  over  a 
man's  shoulders,  so  that  it  is  carried  much  in  the 
same  way  as  a  glazier  carries  his  frame  and  glass, 
as  shown  in  fig.  14,  These  baskets  hold  quite  a 


large  quantity  of  manure — more  than  a  wheelbarrow. 
While  it  is  being  filled,  it  is  placed  on  a  stand  called 
a  "chargeoir"  (see  fig.  14).  This  is  a  tripod,  made 
of  wood  or  iron,  having  two  upright  posts  or  horns, 
one  at  each  end  of  the  platform.  This  is  at  a  con- 
venient height  from  the  ground,  so  that  there  is  no 




necessity  for  a  man  to  stoop  or  rise  when  he  wishes 
to  take  the  laden  basket  on  his  shoulders.  He  simply 
places  his  back  to  the  basket,  arranges  the  straps  over 
his  shoulders,  and  marches  off  to  the  spot  where 
the  manure  is  wanted.  To  march  steadily  and  quickly 
in  an  alley,  about  a  foot  wide,  between  rows  of  frames, 
with  a  couple  of  hundredweights  of  manure  on  the 
back,  necessitates  a  good  deal  of  skill  which  can 
only  be  acquired  by  practice.  Having  reached  his 


destination,  the  workman  tilts  his  basket  to  the 
right  or  left,  and  shoots  the  manure  from  it  almost 
exactly  in  the  same  way  as  a  coalheaver  gets  rid 
of  his  sack  of  coals. 

MISCELLANEOUS  IMPLEMENTS. — In  addition  to  the 
above,  other  tools  will  be  required.  Amongst  those  most 
generally  useful  will  be  found  steel  spades,  shovels, 
dung  forks  and  digging  forks,  iron  rakes  (of  which  the 
American  pattern  is  best),  dibbers  and  trowels  for 
transplanting,  line  and  reel,  and  other  odds  and 
ends  that  will  suggest  themselves  from  time  to  time. 

THERMOMETERS  are  almost  indispensable  in  a 
"  French  "  garden  so  that  one  may  see  at  a  glance 
whether  the  temperature  is  too  high  or  too  low  for 
a  specific  purpose.  Hot-bed  or  plunge  thermometers 
are  particularly  useful,  as  it  is  easy,  especially  for 
beginners,  to  misjudge  the  heat  of  a  bed — and  mis- 
judgment  may  mean  a  serious  loss  at  times. 

As  all  gardeners  must  constantly  keep  an  eye  upon 
"  the  weather,  and  the  setting  of  the  winds,"  a  good 
barometer  in  the  house  will  always  be  found  of  the 
greatest  use,  in  addition  to  the  thermometers. 

WATER-POTS. — These  indispensable  adjuncts  to  a 
garden  vary  much  in  shape  and  size,  and  those  used 
in  France  are  built  on  somewhat  different  lines  from 
those  used  in  this  country.  The  French  gardeners 
prefer  water-pots  as  shown  in  fig.  15,  from  which  it 
will  be  seen  that  the  strong,  curved  handle  runs 
from  near  the  base  of  the  can  on  one  side  to  the  ex- 
treme margin  on  the  other.  This  style  of  handle 
enables  the  gardener  to  use  two  water-pots — one  in 
each  hand — without  having  to  put  them  down  for 
refilling.  When  carrying  water  the  handle  is  held 


on  top  right  over  the  body  of  the  can.  When,  how- 
ever, water  is  being  poured  from  the  spout,  the  gardener, 
with  an  expert  jerk,  brings  his  hands  farther  back 
along  the  handle.  This  naturally  sends  the  water 
out  of  the  spout  with  force,  and  thus  the  water-pot 
in  each  hand  can  be  emptied  without  placing  it  on 
the  ground.  When  empty,  the  cans  are  slid  or  jerked 
back  into  a  vertical  position,  and  filled  and  emptied 
again  in  the  same  way  as  often  as  necessary. 

"  ROSE  "  TO  SPOUT. 

The  best  water-pots  are  made  in  copper,  and  last 
a  life-time — indeed,  they  almost  become  heir-looms. 
They  cost  from  255.  to  305.  a  pair,  each  one  holding 
about  2j  to  3  gallons  of  water.  English  growers  will 
probably  prefer  their  own  water-pots,  which  they 
can  handle  just  as  dexterously  as  the  Frenchman 
handles  his. 

The  long-handled  spades,  or  shovels,  and  forks  are 
not  likely  to  commend  themselves  to  English  gardeners 
who  have  been  so  long  accustomed  to  the  loop-handled 
tools.  They  are,  however,  specially  suitable  for 


French  gardening.  It  certainly  appears  much  easier 
to  fill  a  manure-basket  with  a  long-handled  fork  than 
with  a  short  one,  and  the  long-handled  spade  or  shovel 
is  a  convenience  when  filling  the  frames  with  soil. 


Under  ordinary  conditions  the  proper  application 
of  water  to  the  roots  of  plants  requires  a  good  deal  of 
care  and  judgment,  as  every  professional  gardener 
knows.  When,  however,  plants  are  grown  under 
forced  conditions  under  cloches  and  lights  on  hot-beds, 
it  is  more  than  ever  essential  that  watering  should 
be  done  carefully  and  judiciously.  All  plants  do  not 
absorb  water  from  the  soil  at  the  same  rate.  The 
roots  of  some  kinds  are  much  more  active  than  those 
of  others  ;  consequently,  the  gardener  must  have  this 
knowledge  "  at  the  back  of  his  head  "  whenever  he 
waters  his  crops.  The  temperature,  both  outside  and 
inside  the  frames  and  cloches,  must  be  taken  into 
account,  also  the  particular  period  of  the  year,  and  the 
weather  actually  prevailing  at  the  time.  Sometimes 
an  abundance  of  water  will  be  given,  but  on  other 
occasions  perhaps  a  mere  sprinkling  overhead  will 
suffice  for  the  same  crops.  Over-watering — i.e.  giving 
too  much — must  be  just  as  carefully  avoided  as  under- 
watering,  or  not  giving  sufficient  when  the  plants  need 
it.  In  the  case  of  over- watering  the  soil  or  mould  is 
apt  to  become  sour  and  sodden,  fresh  air  is  excluded, 
the  tender  roots  perish  through  suffocation  or  absence 
of  oxygen,  or  the  lower  leaves  are  attacked  with  some 
fungoid  disease  which  sets  up  rapid  discoloration  and 
decay  throughout  the  entire  plant.  On  the  other 


hand,  a  lack  of  water  at  the  roots  causes  the  leaves  to 
droop  or  "  flag,"  in  which  condition  they  are  unable 
to  assimilate  even  the  small  amount  of  carbonic  acid 
gas  floating  in  the  atmosphere,  or  to  perform  their 
other  functions  properly.  The  result  may  be  to  induce 
the  plants  to  "  bolt  "  into  flower  prematurely.  To 
strike  the  happy  medium,  therefore,  is  the  constant 
aim  of  the  cultivator,  and  this  can  only  be  done  by 
exercising  his  intellectual  faculties  and  making  use 
of  the  knowledge  he  has  already  acquired. 

WATERING  IN  WINTER. — So  far  as  early  crops  or 
"  primeurs "  of  Carrots,  Radishes,  Lettuces,  Cauli- 
flowers, etc.,  are  concerned,  no  water,  as  water,  is 
actually  applied  to  the  hot-beds  on  which  they  are 
raised  or  growing  from  January  to  March.  These 
early  crops  secure  sufficient  moisture  from  the  damp, 
hot  manure  beneath  them,  and  this  obtains  its  supplies 
by  capillary  attraction  from  the  rains  that  run  into 
the  narrow  pathways  from  the  lights.  It  thus  becomes 
necessary  to  open  the  lights  only  when  absolutely 
needful,  and  the  danger  of  chilling  the  plants  by  cold 
water  is  thus  avoided  during  the  coldest  period  of 
the  year. 

In  the  spring  and  early  summer,  and  then  onwards 
during  the  growing  season,  the  application  of  water 
becomes  an  important  feature  in  the  day's  work. 
Generally  speaking,  it  is  best  to  give  water  either  in 
the  mornings  before  ten  o'clock,  or  in  the  afternoon 
after  three,  four,  or  five  o'clock,  according  to  circum- 
stances and  convenience.  Watering  should  always  be 
avoided  during  the  middle  of  the  day  when  the  sun  is 
very  hot.  Tender-leaved  plants  especially  are  liable 
to  be  severely  scorched  and  spoiled  by  having  water 


upon  them  at  this  time,  especially  if  any  happen  to 
be  under  a  cloche  or  light,  as  the  glass  in  either  case 
acts  as  a  lens,  and  concentrates  the  rays  of  the  sun 
upon  certain  portions  of  the  leaf  surface. 

When  crops  are  well  established  and  in  full  growth 
during  the  summer  months,  water  is  applied  freely 
by  means  of  a  hose  attached  to  the  nozzle  of  a  stand- 
pipe.  Standpipes  should  be  fixed  about  every  20  or 
30  ft.  to  the  2  in.  or  3  in.  water-pipes  running  under- 
ground along  the  main  pathways.  This  enables  one 
to  attach  the  hose  to  the  nozzle  of  the  most  con- 
venient standpipe,  and  if  the  latter  is  provided  with  a 
good  screw-valve,  the  flow  and  force  of  water  can  be 
easily  regulated. 

In  French  market-gardens  an  ingenious  contrivance 
is  used  to  prevent  long  lengths  of  hose  from  trailing 
over  the  plants  in  the  beds  or  frames.  An  iron  stand, 
something  like  the  capital  letter  H  in  shape,  is  pressed 
into  the  soil  at  the  corner  of  a  bed  or  row  of  frames. 
On  the  two  upper  arms,  and  on  the  cross-piece,  is  a 
movable  metal  reel.  The  hose-pipe  rests  on  the  cross- 
piece,  and  as  it  is  pulled  along,  its  progress  is  made 
easy  by  the  movement  of  the  reels.  In  this  way,  no 
matter  how  sharp  the  turn  or  bend,  the  hose-pipe  does 
not  "  kink,"  and  the  free  flow  of  water  is  in  no  way 


Under  the  headings  of  the  various  crops  mentioned 
in  this  book  instructions  are  given  as  to  sowing  the 
seeds  in  each  instance.  It  may  be  well,  however,  to 
speak  of  seed-sowing  in  general  a  little  more  fully 



Seeds  vary  much  in  size,  shape,  and  colour,  but 
most  of  those  we  are  dealing  with  may  be  described 
as  "  small  " — the  only  large  ones  of  any  note  being 
those  of  the  Dwarf  or  French,  and  Haricot  Beans. 

No  matter  how  small  a  seed  may  be,  it  contains 
all  the  rudiments  of  the  future  plant  tightly  packed 
away  within  its  protecting  coats.  So  long  as  the  seed 
is  alive  and  has  been  properly  ripened,  it  possesses 
all  the  powers  of  germination  or  sprouting.  It  is  a 
matter  of  common  knowledge,  however,  that  certain 
conditions  are  essential  to  induce  seeds  of  any  kind 
to  germinate.  These  are  :  (i)  a  certain  degree  of 
warmth,  according  to  the  natural  requirements  of  the 
species  ;  (2)  moisture  ;  and  (3)  fresh  air.  When  these 
conditions  exist  in  conjunction  with  a  properly 
prepared  compost,  we  have  everything  essential  for 
the  good  germination  of  seeds. 

Even  with  these  conditions  there  is  a  danger  that 
young  plants  may  never  appear  if  the  seeds  are  sown 
improperly.  This  danger  arises  only  when  the  seeds 
are  buried  too  deeply  in  the  soil.  One  must,  therefore, 
be  careful  that  the  smaller  the  seeds  are  the  less  deeply 
should  they  be  sown  ;  in  other  words,  they  must  not 
be  covered  with  too  much  soil.  A  good  general  rule 
amongst  gardeners  when  sowing  seeds  in  warmth  is 
to  cover  them  with  a  layer  of  soil  equal  to  twice  their 
own  diameter.  Some  tiny  seeds,  therefore,  are  prac- 
tically not  covered  at  all,  as  they  sink  sufficiently  deep 
into  the  miniature  holes  in  the  surface  of  the  prepared 
compost  after  a  gentle  watering  has  been  given. 
Seeds  sown  in  the  open  air  in  early  spring,  or  in  autumn, 
however,  may  be  covered  rather  more  heavily  as  a 
protection  against  cold  nights  or  frosts. 


It  is  obvious  that  if  the  seeds  are  not  to  be  covered 
with  too  much  soil,  the  beds  upon  which  they  are 
sown  must  be  carefully  prepared,  and  the  particles 
of  soil  must  be  rendered  sufficiently  fine  by  passing 
through  a  sieve.  In  addition  to  this,  the  seed-bed 
must  be  made  firm  by  pressing  down  with  a  piece  of 
board,  or  even  by  treading  down  with  the  feet,  after- 
wards finishing  off  the  surface  as  level  as  possible 
by  passing  a  straight-edged  board  over  it,  and  even  by 
patting  it  down  gently  with  the  flat  side.  The  seeds 
are  thus  prevented  from  sinking  too  deeply  into  the 
soil,  and  when  they  germinate  the  seed-leaves  soon 
reach  the  light  and  air  from  which  they  draw  their 
food  and  energy. 

Whether  the  seeds  are  to  be  sown  in  tiny  furrows, 
called  "  drills/'  or  scattered  more  or  less  evenly  over 
the  surface  "  broadcast,"  depends  upon  circumstances. 
As  a  rule  such  root  crops  as  Carrots  and  Turnips  are 
sown  in  "  drills,"  while  Radishes  may  be  sown  in 
drills,  or  broadcast,  or  even  in  patches  between  other 
crops.  The  different  ways  in  which  the  various  seeds 
are  to  be  sown  are  mentioned  under  each  particular 

In  "  intensive  "  cultivation  it  is  essential  to  sow 
seeds  evenly  and  thinly  as  a  rule,  to  save  trouble 
later  on,  although  it  is  generally  permissible  to  sow 
much  thicker  than  in  the  open  ground. 

THINNING  OUT.— With  crops  like  Carrots,  Turnips, 
and  Radishes  that  are  grown  for  their  "  roots,"  it  is 
detrimental  to  lift  the  seedlings  and  transplant  them 
to  another  place.  All  the  roots  would  be  spoiled  by 
doing  so  ;  they  would  become  "  fanged  "  or  "  forked," 
instead  of  being  symmetrically  shaped,  owing  chiefly 


to  the  original  tap-root  being  injured  by  moving,  no 
matter  how  carefully  done.  Such  root-crops,  therefore, 
are  allowed  to  mature  in  the  spot  where  the  seeds  are 
sown.  If  the  young  plants,  however,  are  too  close 
together,  they  suffer  sooner  or  later,  owing  to  lack 
of  air  and  light.  Hence  it  becomes  necessary  to  pull 
out  the  weakest  seedlings,  thus  allowing  more  root 
space  and  air  space  for  the  sturdier  plants.  This  is 
called  "  thinning  out." 

PRICKING  OUT. — Crops  that  are  not  grown  for  their 
roots,  but  for  their  heads,  such  as  Cauliflowers,  Lettuces, 
Cabbages,  etc.,  are  generally  moved  from  the  bed 
in  which  the  seeds  are  sown.  This  moving  is  an 
advantage,  as  more  root  fibres — and  consequently 
more  feeding  agents — are  thus  produced,  and  more 
nourishment  is  absorbed  in  a  given  time  from  the 
soil  than  would  be  the  case  with  an  unmoved  plant. 

In  "  intensive  "  cultivation,  French  market- 
gardeners  do  not  leave  their  seedlings  so  long  in 
the  seed-bed  as  is  customary  in  England.  Soon  after 
the  first  true  leaves  appear  beyond  the  seed-leaves, 
or  cotyledons,  the  baby  seedlings  are  "  pricked  out  " 
into  prepared  beds,  either  in  frames  or  under  cloches. 
They  are  then  gently  watered,  shaded  from  strong 
sunshine  for  two  or  three  days,  during  which  period 
also  no  outer  air  is  admitted.  This  method  ensures 
the  more  rapid  establishment  of  the  young  plants, 
which  consequently  come  earlier  to  a  state  of  maturity. 

When  French  gardeners  are  pricking  out  seedlings 
of  Lettuces,  Cauliflowers,  etc.,  on  the  soft  beds,  they 
rarely  use  a  dibber  or  stick.  The  index-finger  is  used 
instead  for  making  holes  in  the  compost,  and  it  is 
astonishing  how  rapidly  seedling  after  seedling  is 


put  into  its  place  and  made  firm  with  the  fingers. 
The  French  gardener  literally  carries  a  dibber  at 
the  tips  of  his  fingers,  and  he  nearly  always  inserts 
the  plant  right  up  to  lower  leaves  or  seed-leaves. 

TRANSPLANTING. — Sometimes — as  will  be  noted  from 
time  to  time  in  the  following  pages — seedlings  are 
moved  a  second  time  before  they  are  placed  in  their 
final  positions.  In  such  cases,  however,  they  are 
considerably  larger,  and  the  roots  will  have  branched 
further  into  the  soil  in  all  directions.  Under  these 
conditions,  each  plant  is  carefully  lifted  with  a  "  ball 
of  soil  "  attached  to  the  roots.  It  is  then  placed  in 
position  with  the  aid  of  a  trowel — the  lower  leaves 
just  on  the  surface  of  the  ground — and  the  new  soil 
is  pressed  firmly  round  the  base  of  the  plant  and 
the  roots. 


These  two  operations  almost  go  hand  in  hand, 
and  a  good  deal  of  common  sense  is  necessary  to 
enable  the  gardener  to  know  exactly  when  to  do  one 
or  the  other  or  both. 

As  a  rule,  young  seedlings  that  are  just  pricked 
out  or  transplanted  are  shaded  from  strong  sunshine 
by  covering  the  lights  or  cloches  with  mats.  At  this 
particular  period,  when  the  plants  have  been  more 
or  less  injured  at  the  roots  by  lifting,  it  is  advisable 
to  check  the  evaporation  of  moisture  or  vapour  from 
the  millions  of  minute  breathing  pores  on  ithe  surfaces 
of  the  leaves.  As  evaporation  goes  on  more  rapidly 
in  sunlight  and  in  a  dry  atmosphere  than  it  does 
in  the  shade  and  in  a  moist  atmosphere,  it  is  obvious 



that  the  latter  conditions  are  most  likely  to  help 
plants,  as  the  injured  roots  for  the  time  being  are 
unable  to  suck  up  moisture  from  the  surrounding 
soil.  These  injured  roots,  however,  soon  heal  up 
under  normal  conditions,  and  masses  of  new  fibres 
develop  behind  the  injured  tips  of  the  older  roots. 
In  this  way,  after  the  temporary  check,  the  plants 
are  really  better  off  than  they  were  before,  by  having 
more  feeding  roots,  and  the  effect  is  soon  apparent 
by  the  way  the  leaves  stand  up,  and  by  the  develop- 
ment of  fresh  growths.  When  the  gardener  sees  this 
he  knows  the  plants  have  established  themselves  in 
their  new  home.  Therefore  he  removes  the  shading 
material,  except  perhaps  when  he  considers  the  sun 
to  be  still  too  powerful. 

When  freshly  moved  seedlings  are  shaded  from 
the  sun,  the  frames  or  cloches  also  are  shut  down 
tightly.  In  this  way  the  moisture  or  vapour  arising 
from  the  soil  is  prevented  from  escaping.  It  is  kept 
in  the  air  immediately  round  the  leaves  and  stems 
of  the  young  plants,  and  thus  prevents  the  sap  in  the 
tissues  from  being  given  off  freely  into  the  atmosphere. 
When  the  lights  and  cloches  are  kept  shut  down  in 
the  way  described,  the  plants  are  said  to  be  kept 
"  close  " — meaning  that  the  outer  air  is  not  allowed 
to  circulate  freely  about  them  for  a  certain  time. 
Once,  however,  the  plants  are  again  in  a  growing 
condition,  or  have  "  picked  up  "  as  gardeners  say, 
it  is  essential  to  allow  them  as  much  air  and  light 
as  possible,  consistent  with  the  necessary  warmth 
and  moisture.  Otherwise  they  would  become  weak 
and  lanky — "  drawn,"  as  the  saying  is — and  the 
tissues  would  be  so  soft,  tender,  and  flabby,  that  the 


plants  would  be  quite  useless  for  any  purpose- 
scarcely  fit  for  rabbit  food  even. 

When  growing  Lettuces,  Cauliflowers,  Carrots, 
Radishes  and  other  crops  mentioned  in  the  following 
pages  under  lights  or  cloches,  the  gardener  will  at 
once  recognise  the  great  importance  of  giving  light 
and  air  at  exactly  the  right  moments,  in  accordance 
with  the  instructions  given ;  and  in  doing  so  he 
must  always  take  the  state  of  the  weather  into  account. 

By  using  the  tilts  (see  figs.  9  to  12)  for  lights  and 
cloches,  or  even  bricks  or  blocks  of  wood,  as  much 
or  as  little  air  may  be  given  as  desired.  On  very 
cold  days,  perhaps  only  a  "  crack  "  of  air,  as  gardeners 
say,  is  given  by  placing  the  tilts  on  the  lowest  notch 
or  on  the  thinnest  side  ;  and  even  then  perhaps  no 
air  will  be  given  until  near  mid-day — just  for  an 
hour  or  so  according  to  climatic  conditions.  On 
other  occasions,  such  as  a  bright  balmy  morning,  air 
may  be  given  quite  early,  and  perhaps  the  cloches 
or  lights  will  be  opened  to  the  full  extent  of  the  tilts 
used.  This  is  called  "  putting  on  full  air." 

Whether  much  or  little  air  is  given,  it  is  always 
advisable,  as  already  stated,  to  note  the  direction  of 
the  wind.  The  tilt  is  then  placed  on  the  opposite 
side  of  the  cloche  or  light,  so  that  the  draught  does 
not  blow  directly  on  to  the  tender  heads  of  the  plants, 
but  passes  over  them  without  causing  a  chill,  and 
a  possible  check  to  the  growth. 


One  of  the  most  interesting  and  striking  features 
of  intensive  cultivation  is  the  way  in  which  the  same 


piece  of  ground  is  made  to  carry  several  crops  in 
the  course  of  a  season.  The  crops  are  generally 
dissimilar  in  vegetation,  and  to  secure  the  best  results 
quick-growing  plants  are  grown  with  those  of  a  slower 
development.  Thus  it  is  usual  to  sow  Early  Radishes 
and  Carrots  on  the  same  bed,  and  to  plant  Lettuces 
over  them.  The  Radishes  germinate  quickly  and 
do  not  interfere  with  the  slower-growing  Carrots,  as 
they  are  taken  off  before  the  latter  reach  any  size. 
The  Lettuces  on  the  same  bed  have  grown  into  sale- 
able produce  in  the  meantime,  and  when  they  are 
gathered,  the  Carrots  then  have  the  soil,  air,  and 
light  to  themselves — but  very  often  the  borders  of 
the  beds  are  planted  with  Cauliflowers,  which  mature 
after  the  Carrots  have  been  pulled. 

Even  in  the  open  air  this  system  of  combination 
crops  is  generally  practised.  I  have  seen  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Vitry  ground  covered  with  Lettuces 
and  Endives  in  various  stages  of  growth,  and  between 
the  rows  quick  catch-crops  like  Spinach  and  Radishes 
have  been  sown.  Before  these  attain  any  great 
height,  the  other  crops  will  have  been  taken  off  the 

In  the  following  pages  numerous  examples  of 
combination  crops,  and  intercropping,  are  given, 
and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that,  practised  judiciously, 
the  system  has  much  to  recommend  it.  At  no  season 
of  the  year  need  the  ground  be  without  a  crop  of  some 

The  principle  underlying  the  "  rotation  of  crops  " 
is  also  carried  out  regularly  in  gardens  devoted  to 
intensive  cultivation.  Thus,  the  ground  which  this 
year,  perhaps,  is  carrying  crops  of  Carrots,  Cauli- 


flowers,  Lettuces,  Radishes,  Endives,  Spinach,  etc.,  etc., 
will  be  utilised  next  year  for  the  production  of  Melons, 
and  open-air  crops  generally,  and  vice  versa.  In 
this  way  a  certain  portion  of  the  garden  is  always 
more  or  less  exposed  to  the  weather,  and  is  kept 
"  sweet  "  and  in  good  condition  for  other  crops,  by 
the  fresh  air  circulating  amongst  its  particulars. 


In  a  volume  devoted  to  the  French  system  of  garden- 
ing, it  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  refer  to  the  produce 
that  is  sent  to  the  markets  of  the  French  capital.  The 
differences  in  taste  and  custom  between  the  French 
and  English  peoples  naturally  result  in  totally  different 
kinds  of  fruits  and  vegetables  being  grown  for  com- 
mercial purposes.  What  the  French  market -gardener 
therefore  finds  to  be  a  remunerative  crop  in  his  own 
market,  the  English  grower  would  most  likely  discover 
to  be  a  drug  in  Covent  Garden,  or  in  any  of  the  large 
provincial  markets  in  the  kingdom.  From  the  follow- 
ing remarks  of  mine,  in  the  American  Florist,  the 
reader  may  readily  see  how  very  different  the  vegetable 
produce  in  the  Paris  market  is  from  that  generally 
sent  to  Covent  Garden  : 

"  Almost  in  the  centre  of  Paris  on  the  north  bank 
of  the  Seine,  and  opposite  the  famous  church  of  St. 
Eustache,  are  to  be  found  the  famous  markets  of 
Paris  known  as  the  Halles  Centrales.  Meat,  fish, 
poultry,  fruits,  flowers  and  vegetables  are  all  to  be 
found  beneath  the  roof  of  the  famous  building  erected 
by  Baltard  in  1874,  which  embraces  altogether  an  area 
of  about  22  acres.  To  see  the  markets  at  their  best, 


a  visit  should  be  paid  about  five  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
Amongst  horticultural  produce,  the  vegetables  seem 
to  be  of  far  more  importance  here  than  either  the 
fruits  or  flowers.  Most  of  the  business  in  the  vegetable 
market  is  done  by  women,  and  row  after  row  of  stalls 
are  laden  with  produce  sent  in  from  the  market-gardens 
all  round  the  city. 

"  There  is  a  general  similarity  between  the  Halles 
Centrales  and  Co  vent  Garden,  London,  so  far  as  noise, 
bustle,  and  activity  are  concerned,  but  there  is  a  great 
difference  in  the  produce  displayed  for  sale.  Vegetables 
that  one  rarely  sees  in  Co  vent  Garden,  such  as  Au- 
bergines, Butter  Beans,  Black  Radishes,  Haricots 
Verts,  Cantaloup  Melons,  etc.,  are  greatly  in  evidence 
in  Paris,  and  it  is  evident  that  a  flourishing  trade  is 
done  in  produce  that  would  probably  fail  to  find  a 
customer  in  London.  Salads  always  constitute  a 
large  proportion  of  the  vegetable  market  in  Paris, 
where,  of  course,  the  marketing  is  largely  in  the  hands 
of  the  mothers  and  daughters  of  the  various  families 
who  deal  direct  with  the  growers. 

"  At  the  time  of  my  last  visit  to  the  Central  Markets 
I  was  particularly  struck  with  the  large  quantities  of 
Globe  Artichokes  on  sale.  They  were  on  every  stall, 
and  were  selling  for  about  6d.  to  is.  a  dozen  heads. 
Mushrooms  also  were  in  fair  abundance  and  were 
realising  about  8d.  to  gd.  per  pound.  A  rather  long 
tapering  turnip  known  as  '  Croissy '  was  in  great 
abundance,  and  although  it  has  been  grown  by  Parisian 
market-gardeners  for  several  generations,  it  is  still 
considered  one  of  the  best  all-round  varieties. 
Radishes,  the  small  red  varieties  with  white  tips,  were 
•of  course  in  evidence  everywhere,  and  they  looked  so 


nice  and  fresh  and  enticing  that  it  is  no  wonder  they 
sell  in  enormous  quantities.  The  Melons  of  the 
Cantaloup  Prescott  variety  were  on  almost  every 
stall,  but  they  were  cheap  in  comparison  with  what 
they  had  realised  earlier  in  the  season.  Indeed,  the 
street  hawkers  had  barrow-loads  of  these  Melons 
which  they  sold  in  portions  at  the  rate  of  2d.  or  $d. 
a  pound  to  passers-by  during  August. 

"  Carrots,  the  short  stump-rooted  varieties,  are 
always  great  favourites  in  Paris,  while  there  was  also 
an  abundance  of  Golden  Celery,  Cauliflowers,  Sorrel, 
Garlic,  Endive,  and  Lettuces.  I  was  rather  struck 
with  the  quantity  of  small  green  Vegetable  Marrows 
offered  for  sale.  The  fruits  were  not  more  than  6 
or  7  in.  long  and  were  obviously  as  fresh  as 
they  could  well  be.  I  was  informed  that  they  sold 
remarkably  well,  as  also  did  the  small  Prickly  Cu- 
cumbers known  as  '  cornichons.'  White-fruited 
Cucumbers  were  fairly  conspicuous,  and  as  they  are 
not  extensively  grown,  they  realise  fairly  good  prices. 
The  long  green-fruited  Cucumbers  are,  however,  the 
most  highly  appreciated.  The  Black  Radishes,  which 
look  like  intermediate  carrots  or  Croissy  turnips  that 
have  been  smothered  in  soot,  cannot  fail  to  attract 
attention.  All  over  Paris  these  curious-looking 
vegetables  were  to  be  seen  in  the  greengrocers'  shops." 


Although  the  French  system  of  intensive  cultivation 
is  regarded  as  being  confined  to  the  production  of 
vegetables  and  salads,  there  is  no  reason  why  the 


cloches  and  frames  in  use  may  not  be  turned  to  good 
account  in  connection  with  other  crops.  From  the 
nature  of  the  implements,  it  is  obvious  that  short- 
stemmed  or  dwarf-growing  crops  are  likely  to  lend 
themselves  successfully  to  the  treatment,  and  the 
following  may  be  regarded  chiefly  in  the  light  of 

I.  Strawberries. — Amongst  important  fruits,  Straw- 
berries may  be  looked  upon  as  being  particularly 
suited  for  growing  under  lights  or  cloches  to  produce 
early  crops.  At  present  these  are  grown  in  pots  in 
greenhouses,  close  to  the  glass,  and  require  considerable 
time  and  attention  in  regard  to  watering,  syringing, 
regulation  of  temperature,  and  keeping  free  from 
mildew.  Grown  under  cloches,  or  in  beds  that  will 
accommodate  the  frames  and  lights  used  for  salads,  it 
would  be  possible  to  secure  early  crops  of  Strawberries 
in  spring  from  young  plantations  without  going  to 
the  trouble  of  lifting  the  plants  and  potting  them  in 
the  autumn.  For  instance,  in  the  case  of  beds,  it 
would  be  possible  after  placing  the  frames  and  lights 
over  the  plants,  to  fill  in  the  pathways  with  manure 
from  which  heat  would  be  generated  in  the  frames  in 
accordance  with  the  requirements  of  the  season.  A 
certain  amount  of  the  short,  warm  manure  could  also 
be  worked  in  between  the  rows  of  plants  without 
disturbing  the  roots,  and  when  the  fruits  were  swelling, 
a  layer  of  clean  litter  could  be  added  for  the  sake  of 
cleanliness.  In  this  way  the  Strawberries  would  come 
into  bearing  more  quickly,  and  watering  and  ventilation 
could  be  attended  to  without  inconvenience.  Once 
the  fruits  are  gathered,  the  frames  and  lights,  and 
manure  in  the  pathways,  may  be  used  for  other  pur- 


poses.  Of  course  Strawberries  grown  in  pots  could 
also  be  forced  in  the  frames  if  necessary. 

Cloches  would  be  found  useful  for  placing  over  the 
crowns  of  the  Strawberry  plants,  if  these  were  planted 
in  three  angled  rows  in  the  same  way  as  Lettuces,  as 
shown  in  fig.  41.  Each  plant  would  have  a  cloche 
to  itself,  and  in  cold  weather  warm  manure  could  be 
packed  in  between  and  around  the  glasses  to  keep  the 
plants  warm.  Later  on,  when  the  weather  became 
warmer,  it  might  be  possible  to  have  a  Cos  or  Cabbage 
Lettuce  planted  in  the  spaces  between  the  cloches  ; 
and  these  would  probably  be  useful  afterwards  for 
placing  over  the  Lettuces,  according  to  the  season. 

2.  Tomatoes. — In  most  parts  of  the  kingdom  it  is 
dangerous  to  place  Tomato  plants  in  the  open  air  till 
the  end  of  May  or  early  in  June,  owing  to  the  frosts 
and  cold  nights.  If,  however,  hot-beds  of  the  regula- 
tion width  to  accommodate  three  rows  of  cloches  were 
prepared,  and  a  gentle  heat  from  the  manure  were 
secured,  it  would  be  quite  possible  to  sow  Tomato 
seeds  under  a  cloche  or  two  as  early  as  January  or 
February,  in  the  gritty  mould  that  would  be  placed 
over  the  manure.  The  strongest  plants  would  be 
pricked  out  in  due  course,  and  after  becoming  estab- 
lished, air  would  be  given  more  or  less  freely  by  tilting 
the  cloches  on  all  favourable  occasions.  This  would 
keep  the  young  plants  sturdy  and  actively  growing  at 
the  same  time.  If  by  chance  they  grew  too  tall  for 
the  cloches  before  it  was  safe  to  dispense  with  the 
latter  (one  being  placed  under  each  as  soon  as  possible), 
the  glasses  could  be  raised  on  three  tilts,  bricks,  or 
blocks  of  wood,  in  the  way  described  for  Cucumbers 
at  p.  128,  When  frost  is  no  longer  feared,  the  cloches 


may  be  dispensed  with,  and  the  plants  will  continue 
to  develop  and  ripen  their  fruits  without  having  to 
undergo  the  usual  check  to  the  roots  caused  by  moving. 
The  plants,  of  course,  should  be  staked,  and  during 
the  season  all  the  side  shoots  ("  laterals  ")  from  the 
main  stems  should  be  pinched  out  when  they  appear. 
Only  four  trusses  of  flowers  should  be  allowed  to 
set  their  fruits.  The  tops  should  be  cut  off  about 
two  leaves  beyond  the  upper  truss  of  flowers.  The 
leaves,  however,  should  not  be  cut  off  or  mutilated 
in  any  way,  except  when  they  turn  yellow  at  the  base 
of  the  plant. 

3.  Early  Potatoes. — Where  these  are  valued  it  ought 
not    to    be    difficult  to  secure   a   good  crop  early  in 
the   year,    with   the  aid    of   cloches  and  frames,  and 
warm  manure,  the  operations  being  much  the  same  as 
described  for  Tomatoes — except,  of  course,  that  tubers 
instead  of  seeds  are  being  dealt  with. 

4.  Marrows. — These   are    an  important   crop   when 
the  fruits  can  be  secured  early  in  the  season.      The 
Bush  Marrows,  as  well  as  the  creeping  kinds,  might 
be  very  easily  established  early  in  the  year  in  the 
following  way :    About  February,  or  early  in  March, 
dig  out  a  few  spadefuls  of  soil  where  each  plant  is  to 
grow.     The  hole  thus  made  should  be  filled  with  a 
layer  about  a  foot  thick  of  hot  manure,  and  covered 
with  about  6  in.  of  nice,  rich,  gritty  mould.     When 
the  rank  heat,  if  any,  has  subsided  and  the  temperature 
is  about  70°  to  75°  Fahr.,  two  or  three  Marrow  seeds 
should  be   sown   about   2  in.  deep  in  the  centre   of 
each  little  bed,  and  after  being  watered  in,  should  be 
covered  with  a  cloche.     As  many  little  hot-beds  as  are 
required  can  be  made  in  this  way,  allowing  enough 


space  between  each  for  the  development  of  the  plants 
later  on.  After  germination  air  is  given  as  freely  as 
possible,  considering  the  weather,  and  by  the  middle 
or  end  of  May,  or  before  that  period  in  many  parts, 
it  will  be  possible  to  remove  the  cloches  altogether. 
Attention  to  copious  waterings  and  pinching  the  shoots 
afterwards  constitute  the  chief  cultural  details  to 
secure  an  abundance  of  early  Marrows. 

5.  Mint. — This  is  another  useful    and    highly   ap- 
preciated crop  when  it  comes  in  with  the  early  Potatoes 
and  Green  Peas.     It  could  be  grown  quite  easily  in  the 
hot-beds  in  the  frames,  and  could  be  forced  into  tender 
growth  as  early  as  required  by  lining  the  frames  with 
warm  manure  if  necessary. 

6.  Rhubarb. — Where  one  can  draw  upon  a  planta- 
tion of  Rhubarb,  clumps  may  be  lifted  for  forcing 
from  December  till  the  end  of  March,  as  the  young 
and  highly  coloured  leaved-stalks  often  realise  good 
prices  at  this  period  of  the  year.     For  lifted  clumps 
the  process  of  forcing  is  almost  precisely  the  same 
as  described    at    p.  76   for  the  production  of  green 
Asparagus,    the    one    essential   difference   being   that 
the  Rhubarb  should  be  grown  in  the  dark.     Rhubarb 
may  also  be  forced  without  lifting,  in  the  same  way 
as  described  for  White  Asparagus  (see    p.  73).      The 
varieties     called     "Linnaeus,"     "Champagne,"    and 
"  Myatt's  Victoria  "  are  the  best  for  forcing. 

7.  Violets. — Passing  to  flowers,  perhaps  the  single- 
flowered  and  double-flowered  varieties  of  Violets  may 
be  regarded  as  a  good  commercial  crop  early  in  the 
season,  owing  to  their  delicious  fragrance.     The  general 
custom  is  to  lift  the  clumps  early  in  autumn  and 
replant  in  frames  of  rich  soil.     This  operation  might 


be  carried  out  in  the  same  way  with  hot-beds,  but  later 
in  the  year  altogether.  It  would  also  be  possible  to 
have  the  Violet-beds  arranged  so  that  they  could  be 
easily  covered  with  frames  and  lights,  or  cloches, 
without  the  plants  being  moved  at  all.  Indeed,  the 
treatment  described  for  obtaining  early  Strawberries 
(see  p.  60)  might  be  carried  out  with  advantage  in  the 
cultivation  of  early  Violets  ;  and  with  good  annual 
mulchings  of  manure  and  plenty  of  water  when 
required  the  plants  would  continue  to  yield  large  crops 
of  blossoms  for  years. 

8.  Christmas  Roses  (Helleborus  niger). — During 
December  and  January  large  numbers  of  these  pure 
white  blossoms  find  their  way  to  market  and  are  highly 
appreciated.  To  secure  these,  the  clumps  have  to 
be  lifted  and  carried  into  a  warm  greenhouse  to  open 
their  blossoms.  If,  however,  the  beds  on  which  they 
are  grown  were  to  be  only  the  width  of  the  frames 
and  lights,  it  would  be  an  easy  matter  to  force  them 
into  early  blossom  by  filling  up  the  pathways  between 
the  frames  with  hot  manure,  in  the  same  way  as  for 
Strawberries  (p.  60).  With  cloches,  however,  it  would 
be  possible  to  cover  each  crown,  and  place  the  manure 
between.  As  great  heat  is  not  necessary,  the  Christmas 
Rose  seems  to  be  particularly  well  suited  for  this 
system  of  cultivation. 

9.  Miscellaneous. — Several  other  popular  plants, 
such  as  early  Tulips,  Lilies  of  the  Valley,  Primroses, 
Polyanthuses,  Auriculas,  Forget-me-Nots,  etc.,  might 
be  brought  earlier  into  blossom  if  desired  by  the 
judicious  use  of  frames  and  cloches. 

During  July  and  August,  when  the  lights  and  cloches 
are  usually  stacked  away  in  heaps  and  piles  in  French 


gardens,  many  of  them  might  be  utilised  for  the 
propagation  of  Roses  and  other  beautiful,  shrubby 
plants  from  the  half-ripened  summer  shoots.  Indeed, 
it  is  possible,  with  the  enormous  varieties  of  plants 
now  in  cultivation,  that  there  are  many  different  ways 
still  unthought  of,  to  which  the  use  of  the  frame  and 
cloche  may  be  extended.  It  should,  however,  be 
borne  in  mind  that  excursions  into  these  other  branches 
of  gardening  would  necessitate  more  land,  labour,  etc., 
and  the  results  might  not  be  worth  the  trouble  in 
all  cases. 



IN  this  portion  of  the  work  the  various  methods  of 
culture  practised  in  French  gardens  is  detailed.  Each 
crop  is  dealt  with  separately,  so  that  its  special  needs 
may  not  be  overlooked.  While  the  functions  of  all 
green-leaved  plants  are  the  same,  it  is  important 
for  the  gardener  to  bear  in  mind  that  many  modifi- 
cations of  general  principles  are  rendered  necessary 
according  to  the  period  of  the  year  at  which  he  desires 
his  crops  to  mature.  Thus,  what  may  be  perfectly 
sound  practice  in  January  and  December,  may  be 
quite  erroneous  in  June  and  July.  The  state  of  the 
weather  and  the  various  seasons  must  always  be 
taken  into  account,  and  conditions  have  to  be  modified 
almost  with  every  rise  and  fall  in  the  barometer. 
Rain,  snow,  hail,  frost,  sun,  and  wind — all  have  im- 
portant influences  on  vegetation,  and  the  intelligent 
cultivator  must  keep  a  steady  eye  on  these  to  see 
that  his  special  cultures  are  in  no  way  adversely 
affected.  He  must  be,  in  fact,  a  kind  of  weather- 
prophet  and  be  able  to  gauge  climatic  changes  with 
a  fair  amount  of  accuracy  if  he  is  to  succeed. 




There  are  many  varieties  of  Globe  Artichokes 
(Cynara  Scolymus),  but  the  Parisian  market-gardeners 
prefer  the  one  called  Gros  Vert  de  Laon.  Another 
variety,  called  Camus  de  Bretagne,  is  grown  in  Brittany, 
and  is  often  eaten  in  an  uncooked  state.  Other  kinds 
are  grown  in  the  middle  and  south  of  France  that 
would  be  quite  unsuitable  for  either  a  Parisian  or 
English  climate. 

Globe  Artichokes  may  be  raised  from  seeds,  but 
are  more  generally  increased  by  carefully  detaching 
suckers  from  the  old  roots  in  March  or  April.  The 
suckers  are  planted  in  a  warm  bed,  and  if  kept  watered 
as  required,  they  soon  make  nice  plants  fit  for  the 
.open  air.  The  soil  should  be  rich,  deeply  dug,  and 
well  manured.  During  the  summer  months  the 
plants  should  be  given  plenty  of  water  at  the  roots 
if  particularly  fine  heads  are  desired.  This,  coupled 
with  abundance  of  manure  and  the  frequent  use  of 
the  hoe,  constitute  the  chief  features  of  cultural 

Although  not  grown  in  England  at  present  to  such 
an  extent  as  in  France,  there  is  no  reason  why  the 
taste  for  the  floral  bracts  of  the  Globe  Artichoke 
should  not  increase. 

When  it  is  desired  to  force  the  plants,  the  operation 
is  performed  much  in  the  same  way  as  described 
for  Asparagus  (see  p.  76).  The  plants  are  taken  up 
carefully  in  November,  and  placed  in  a  hot-bed,  the 
heat  of  which  is  maintained,  if  necessary,  by  lining 
the  frames  with  hot  manure. 



Although  each  year  Asparagus  (Asparagus  officinalis] 
is  becoming  more  and  more  popular  in  the  British 
Islands,  its  consumption  is  chiefly  confined  to  those 
who  are  in  no  danger  of  receiving  an  old  age  pension 
from  the  Government.  In  France  it  is  otherwise. 
Almost  every  one,  even  the  cottager,  eats  Asparagus— 
and  such  Asparagus  !  thick,  succulent,  well-flavoured 

That  fine  Asparagus  can  be  grown  in  the  British 
Islands  there  is  no  doubt  whatever.  It  is  not  a 
matter  of  soil  and  climate.  In  either  respect  we  are 
quite  as  well  off  as  our  French  brethren.  It  is  simply 
a  question  of  careful  attention  to  the  minor  details 
of  cultivation  that  enables  the  French  gardener  to 
produce,  even  on  comparatively  poor  soil,  some  of 
the  finest  Asparagus  in  the  world.  There  are  three 
methods  of  growing  Asparagus  in  French  gardens,  the 
culture  on  a  large  scale  of  course  being  carried  on 
quite  apart  from  that  of  early  salads  and  vegetables. 
First  of  all,  there  is  what  is  known  as  "  white  "  or 
"  blanched  "  Asparagus  ;  then  "  green  "  Asparagus  ; 
after  which  comes  the  "  Argenteuil  "  Asparagus. 

White  Asparagus. — Raising  the  Plants. — To  secure 
good  Asparagus  it  is  essential  in  the  first  place  to 
obtain  seeds  of  a  good  strain  from  a  reliable  source. 
The  roots  that  produce  clean,  thick,  well-formed  shoots, 
terminating  in  a  good  point  that  colours  easily,  are 
those  from  which  seeds  should  be  saved  when  ripe. 
The  best  variety  for  the  purpose  is  Early  Argenteuil. 

The  seeds  are  sown  about  thejniddle  of  January  on  a 


nicely  prepared  hot-bed  under  lights,  and  sufficiently 
thick  to  allow  of  a  second  selection  being  made 
later  on. 

When  the  young  plants  are  a  few  inches  high,  the 
very  best  are  selected  and  carefully  pricked  out  in 
another  frame  2  or  3  in.  apart.  This  will  admit 
about  three  or  four  hundred  plants  under  each  light. 
After  a  gentle  watering,  the  young  plants  are  kept 
"  close  "  for  a  few  days,  after  which  a  little  air  may 
be  given  on  all  fine  days.  As  the  season  advances, 
more  and  more  air  may  be  given,  until  at  length, 
say  about  May,  the  lights  may  be  taken  off.  altogether 
when  frosts  are  no  longer  feared.  Previous  to  this, 
care  must  be  taken  to  protect  the  plants  from  frost 
during  the  night  by  spreading  mats  or  litter  over  the 
lights  when  necessary. 

Planting. — About  the  middle  of  July  these  young 
plants  will  be  ready  for  planting  in  their  final  quarters. 
At  this  period  it  will  be  easy  to  distinguish  the  finest- 
looking  plants  ;  and  these  only  should  be  chosen  for 
the  plantation.  To  secure  a  sufficient  supply,  it  is 
necessary  to  sow  larger  quantities  of  seed  and  to 
prick  out  more  plants  than  are  actually  needed,  so 
that  there  may  be  no  difficulty  in  making  a  good 
selection  the  first  year. 

Experienced  growers  have  remarked  that  clumps 
which  produce  thin  shoots  at  first  continue  to  do  so 
year  after  year.  Such  shoots  are  produced  more 
freely  than  the  larger  and  more  succulent  ones,  it  is 
true  ;  but  one  fat  shoot  is  more  highly  valued  than 
five  thin  ones.  Besides,  there  is  more  sense  in  growing 
the  best  and  most  saleable  shoots,  as  their  cultivation 
entails  no  more  attention  than  the  poorer  kinds. 



The  soil  in  which  the  Asparagus  plants  are  to  be 
placed  should  if  possible  be  light,  rich,  deeply  trenched 
and  well  manured  in  advance.  It  should  also  slope 
more  or  less  towards  the  south  so  as  to  receive  the 
full  benefit  from  the  sun. 

Intercropping. — The  ground  between  the  young 
plants  is  not  left  idle.  Short  Carrots,  Lettuces, 
Spinach,  Corn  Salad,  Radishes,  or  any  other  dwarf 
and  quick-growing  crop  may  be  grown  between  the 
rows  without  the  slightest  danger  to  the  Asparagus. 
Even  Cabbages  and  Cauliflowers  may  be  grown  on  the 
edges  of  each  bed,  and  in  the  pathways  between  them 
—each  crop,  of  course,  at  its  proper  season.  The 
necessary  hoeings  and  waterings  that  must  be  given 
these  crops,  instead  of  being  detrimental  to  the  young 
Asparagus,  are  in  reality  of  great  benefit,  so  much 
so  that  very  often  they  make  as  much  progress  in 
one  season  as  Asparagus  plants  grown  in  the  ordinary 
way  in  the  open  air  do  in  two  or  three  seasons. 

After  the  plants  have  flowered,  no  seed  capsules  are 
allowed  to  form,  as  they  exhaust  a  certain  amount  of 
reserve  material  from  the  tissues.  About  the  end  of 
October  or  in  November  the  stems  are  cut  down 
within  an  inch  or  two  of  the  soil,  the  surface  of  which 
is  hoed  or  lightly  pricked  up  with  the  fork.  A  good 
layer  of  fine  rich  soil  is  then  spread  over  the  bed,  and 
on  this  again  a  good  layer  of  manure.  Each  autumn 
this  work  is  renewed  to  give  a  fresh  supply  of  nourish- 
ment to  the  roots. 

As  the  plants  will  be  ready  for  forcing  at  the  end 
of  two  years'  growth,  although  it  is  better  to  wait  till 
the  end  of  the  third  year,  it  is  advisable  to  mark  out 
the  beds  wide  enough  to  accommodate  the  frames 


and  lights  which  are  to  go  over  them.  The  length 
of  these  beds  will,  of  course,  be  determined  according 
to  the  extent  of  the  ground  or  the  requirements  of 
the  grower.  As  a  rule  the  beds  are  4  ft.  5  in. 
in  width,  as  this  is  the  usual  size  of  the  frames  and 
lights  used.  The  beds  should  run  lengthways  from 
east  to  west,  so  that  the  lights  will  slope  towards  the 
south  ;  and  it  will  be  found  more  convenient  if  each 
bed  does  not  exceed  100  ft.  in  length. 

Between  one  Asparagus  bed  and  another  a  pathway 


about  2  ft.  or  2   ft.   6  in.   in  width   should   be   left 
(see  fig.  1 6). 

Having  marked  out  the  Asparagus  beds  by  lines 
or  pegs,  about  a  foot  of  soil  is  taken  off  the  surface 
of  the  first  one,  and  wheeled  to  the  end  of  the  last 
bed.  The  trench  thus  made  is  then  filled  in  with 
a  mixture  of  good  horse  and  cow  manure,  and,  if 
possible,  a  little  night  soil — all  of  which  should  have 
been  prepared  three  or  four  weeks  beforehand,  and 
should  be  in  a  half-decomposed  and  homogeneous 
condition.  In  "  light  "  soils  the  quantity  of  cow 
manure  may  be  increased  a  little,  but  in  "  heavy  " 
soils  the  horse  manure  should  predominate.  With  this 
manure  many  growers  mix  also  old  rags,  horn-shavings, 


shoddy,  etc. — taking  care,  however,  not  to  add  too 
much.  The  manure  in  the  trenches  having  been 
trodden  down  well  with  the  feet,  so  that  it  is  about 
a  foot  thick,  about  6  or  8  in.  of  soil  from  the  ad- 
joining bed  is  then  spread  evenly  over  the  surface. 

Four  rows  are  marked  out  in  the  bed  lengthways. 
The  two  outer  rows  are  about  8  in.  from  each 
margin,  the  two  centre  ones  being  about  13  in. 
apart.  If  wider  or  narrower  frames  are  used  the 
distance  between  the  rows  would  be  regulated  accord- 
ingly ;  but  in  any  case  it  would  be  necessary  to  keep 
the  two  outer  rows  at  least  8  or  9  in.  away  from 
the  edges  of  the  beds. 

Transplanting. — Everything  being  now  ready,  so 
far  as  the  beds  are  concerned,  one  may  proceed  to 
lift  the  young  plants  from  the  bed  in  which  they  were 
pricked  out  from  the  seed-bed.  It  may  be  advisable, 
however,  to  give  them  a  good  soaking  an  hour  or 
two  beforehand  so  that  they  may  be  lifted  more 
easily  and  with  some  soil  still  adhering  to  the  roots. 
Having  lifted  them  carefully  with  a  fork,  a  selection 
of  the  very  best  plants  is  again  made.  From  twelve 
to  twenty  "  crowns  "  or  clumps  may  be  placed  in 
each  light — although  sixteen  is  recommended  as  the 
best  number. 

If  the  frames  have  not  been  placed  in  position 
before  the  actual  planting,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
allow  more  space  between  the  plants  at  the  end  of 
one  frame  and  the  beginning  of  the  next.  For  this 
reason  it  is  perhaps  advisable  to  place  the  frames 
temporarily  in  position  as  soon  as  the  beds  have  been 
made.  One  can  then  arrange  the  plants  in  the  rows 
so  that  the  Asparagus  crowns  do  not  come  directly 


under  the  division  or  sash  bars,  but  are  properly 
placed  beneath  the  glass  itself. 

In  the  spot  where  each  plant  is  to  be  placed,  a 
little  heap  of  soil  is  made  with  the  hands,  so  as  to 
fill  the  cavity  on  the  under-side  of  the  crown,  and 
permit  the  roots  being  spread  out  in  all  directions 
from  the  centre.  After  this,  it  is  only  necessary  to 
cover  the  crowns  with  fine  rich  soil  to  a  depth  of  3 
or  4  in.,  and  then  give  the  whole  a  good  soaking  with 

The  young  plants  soon  commence  to  make  new 
growths,  and  only  require  to  be  kept  free  from  weeds, 
in  addition  to  which  the  stems  should  be  tied  up  to 
sticks  if  necessary. 

Forcing  White  Asparagus. — When  the  young  plants 
have  finished  their  second — or  preferably  their  third — 
season  of  growth,  they  will  be  sufficiently  strong  to 
stand  being  forced  into  early  growth.  This  takes 
place  from  November  to  February,  although  some 
growers  commence  as  early  as  the  middle  of  October. 

The  work  is  carried  out  as  follows :  Having  placed 
the  frames  on  the  beds  which  are  to  be  forced,  a 
layer  of  fine  rich  soil  and  old  manure  is  spread  over 
the  plants.  The  pathways  are  then  dug  out  to  a 
depth  of  12  to  18  in.  The  soil  thus  obtained  is 
broken  up  into  a  fine  condition  with  the  spade  or 
the  fork,  and  is  spread  evenly  over  the  mould  in 
the  frames  to  a  depth  of  10  or  12  in.  This  is  done 
to  secure  longer  and  finer  stalks  later  on. 

The  sunken  pathways  are  now  filled  up  with  good 
fresh  manure  that  has  been  turned  over  two  or  three 
times  in  advance.  This  manure  should  reach  to  the 
top  of  the  frames  and  lights,  and  after  being  trodden 


down,  it  should  be  well  watered  so  as  to  accelerate 
the  generation  of  heat. 

Before  placing  the  lights  on  the  frames  the  soil 
should  be  watered  if  inclined  to  be  dry,  and  even  a 
layer  of  manure  may  be  spread  over  the  beds  to 
hasten  the  growth  of  the  Asparagus.  Care,  however, 
should  be  taken  to  remove  this  manure  as  soon  as  the 
tender  shoots  appear  above  the  surface  of  the  soil. 

During  the  period  of  growth  a  temperature  of  60° 
to  70°  Fahr.  should  be  maintained,  but  no  air  whatever 
is  given.  Watering  is,  however,  attended  to  when 
necessary,  as  a  humid  atmosphere  is  essential  to  secure 
the  best  results. 

Every  ten  days  or  a  fortnight  the  frames  should 
be  banked  up  or  "  lined  "  with  large  or  small  quantities 
of  fresh  manure  according  to  the  state  of  the  weather, 
the  object  being  to  maintain  an  even  temperature 
within  the  frames. 

Light  is  excluded  during  the  daytime  with  mats  ;  and 
during  the  night-time  the  lights  must  also  be  covered 
with  one  or  more  mats  according  to  the  state  of  the 
weather.  The  temperature  inside  the  frames  should 
never  fall  below  55°  Fahr.,  otherwise  the  shoots  will 
be  attacked  with  "  rust  "  and  become  unsaleable. 

Under  these  conditions  fine  shoots  of  Asparagus  will 
be  ready  at  the  end  of  twenty  to  twenty-five  days 
after  forcing  has  commenced,  and  then  cutting  may 
take  place  every  two  or  three  days  until  the  crop  is 
exhausted,  which  takes  place  in  from  four  to  six  weeks. 
After  each  cutting  it  is  a  good  plan  to  stand  the 
shoots  in  clean  water,  and  place  them  in  a  cellar  for 
a  short  time  so  that  the  tips  may  become  tinged 
with  colour. 


When  the  crop  is  finished,  the  beds  and  linings  of 
manure  may  be  left  untouched  for  several  days  to 
allow  the  heat  to  subside  gradually,  and  also  so  that 
the  plants  may  not  be  exposed  too  suddenly  from  a 
high  to  a  low  temperature.  The  frames  and  lights 
are  then  taken  off,  the  manure  from  the  pathways  is 
utilised  for  dressing  the  ground  for  other  vegetables, 
and  the  upper  soil  from  the  beds  is  returned  to  the 
pathways  from  which  it  was  originally  taken. 

In  practice,  it  is  found  more  economical  to  force  two 
beds  of  Asparagus  running  parallel  than  one,  as  the 
hot  manure  in  the  pathway  then  serves  to  heat  both 
beds  at  the  same  time,  and  also  to  supply  moisture  by 
capillary  attraction.  To  secure  a  succession  of  produce 
to  the  end  of  the  season,  an  interval  of  from  four  to 
six  weeks  may  be  allowed  between  each  bed,  or  group 
of  beds,  to  be  forced. 

As  a  rule  only  half  the  beds  are  forced  one  year,  so 
that  the  other  half  shall  have  a  rest,  thus  allowing  the 
plants  to  recover  from  the  strain  placed  upon  them 
by  the  forcing  process. 

Summer  Treatment. — During  the  summer  months 
the  plants  that  have  been  forced  are  allowed  to  grow 
naturally  without  further  picking,  while  those  that  are 
to  be  forced  the  following  year  are  also  allowed  to 
grow  naturally  and  without  being  cut. 

Treated  in  this  way  Asparagus  beds  made  in  the 
way  described  will  continue  to  yield  good  crops  for 
twelve  to  fifteen  years  of  what  is  known  as  "  white  " 
or  "  blanched  "  Asparagus. 

Green  Asparagus. — The  plants^  [used  for  the  pro- 
duction of  "  green "  Asparagus  should  be  at  least 
two,  if  not  three,  years  old,  to  secure  the  best  results. 


These  may  be  raised  from  seeds  and  transplanted  in 
the  way  already  described  at  p.  72,  remembering  that 
a  good  annual  top-dressing  of  manure  in  the  autumn 
or  early  winter  months  is  necessary.  A  few  good 
soakings  during^dry  seasons  are  also  advisable,  and 
care  should  be  taken  to  have  the  tall  stems  staked 
up  before  they  begin  to  lie  upon  the  ground. 

When  raising  plants  in  this  way  for  forcing  later  on, 
no  young  shoots  whatever  must  be  cut  from  them,  as 
it  is  essential  to  develop  strong,  sturdy  crowns  with  as 
many  growths  as  possible.  Of  course  each  autumn 
the  flowering  stems  are  cut  down  to  the  ground,  except 
the  last  year,  when  the  crowns  are  to  be  forced.  Then 
it  is  better  to  leave  a  few  inches  of  the  stems  showing 
well  above  the  soil  to  indicate  the  exact  position  of 
the  plants,  and  to  render  the  lifting  as  easy  as  possible. 

Forcing  "  Green  "  Asparagus. — Forcing  is  practised 
from  the  middle  of  September  till  the  beginning  of 
March.  The  clumps  or  crowns  are  carefully  lifted  with 
a  flat-tined  fork,  and  are  placed  side  by  side  on  a  few 
inches  of  rich  mould  that  has  previously  been  spread 
over  the  prepared  hot-bed,  or  in  a  heated  frame  or 
warm  greenhouse. 

Each  season  large  growers  of  Asparagus  advertise 
two  or  three  year-old  crowns,  for  forcing  purposes,  at 
reasonable  rates,  so  there  is  realty  no  necessity  for 
the  intensive  cultivator  to  devote  time,  labour,  and 
land  to  the  development  of  the  plants. 

When  a  bed  is  used  for  forcing,  it  is  made  up  of 
good  manure  until  it  is  2  to  3  ft.  thick,  and  developing 
a  temperature  of  70°  to  80°  Fahr.  An  excellent 
hot-bed  may  be  made  from  equal  parts  of  fresh  stable 
manure,  old  manure,  and  cow  manure — all  of  which 


should  be  well  mixed  together,  and  watered  if  inclined 
to  be  dry. 

The  frames  are  placed  on  the  beds  when  ready, 
and  the  pathways  between  are  filled  half-way  up  with 
manure.  On  the  surface  of  each  bed  2  to  3  in. 
of  mould  is  spread,  so  that  the  roots  of  the  Asparagus 
shall  not  come  in  direct  contact  with  the  manure, 
and  so  that  their  growth  shall  be  hastened  without 
running  the  risk  of  being  burned. 

When  the  heat  of  the  bed  has  sunk  to  70°  or  80° 
Fahr.,  the  Asparagus  crowns  are  placed  side  by  side 
without  having  the  roots  shortened  or  mutilated  in 
any  way.  The  larger  and  taller  clumps  are  placed 
near  the  top  of  the  frame,  and  the  smallest  towards 
the  bottom,  and  from  500  to  600  crowns  can  be  packed 
in  under  each  light,  according  to  their  size.  When 
arranging  the  clumps  it  is  important  that  the  tops 
should  be  at  the  same  distance  from  the  glass,  sloping 
gradually  from  top  to  bottom  with  the  fall  of  the 
lights.  Some  fine  rich  and  gritty  mould  is  then  care- 
fully worked  in  between  the  crowns,  and  washed  down 
amongst  the  roots  with  plenty  of  water  ;  after  which 
some  of  the  same  mould  should  be  spread  over  the 
tops  of  the  crowns  to  a  depth  of  a  few  inches. 

Lining. — The  work  in  the  frames  being  finished,  the 
pathways  are  then  filled  with  manure  up  to  the  top 
of  the  frames  if  there  is  an  inclination  for  the  heat 
within  to  diminish.  Manure  is  added  or  taken  away 
from  the  pathways  according  as  to  whether  the  tem- 
perature is  too  low  or  too  high.  Towards  night  one, 
two,  or  three  mats,  according  to  the  weather,  should 
be  placed  over  the  lights  for  protection  and  to  keep 
the  heat  constant  by  night  as  well  as  by  day. 


As  soon  as  the  shoots  begin  to  grow,  a  little  air  may 
be  admitted  during  the  day  if  the  weather  is  favourable, 
and  sprinklings  with  tepid  water  must  be  given  from 
time  to  time.  At  the  end  of  about  a  fortnight,  the 
first  shoots  will  be  ready  for  cutting,  and  others  will 
continue  to  appear  for  about  eight  or  ten  weeks,  during 
which  they  are  gathered  every  day  or  two,  the  crop 
from  each  light  varying  from  6,000  to  8,000  shoots. 
These,  being  exposed  to  the  light,  develop  green 
colouring,  differing  in  this  way  from  the  white  Aspara- 
gus produced  in  darkness. 

When  the  crowns  cease  to  produce  any  more  growths 
the  beds  may  be  dismantled,  or  they  may  be  made 
up  again  if  it  is  still  worth  while  to  force  another  crop 
the  same  season.  Once  the  roots  have  been  forced  in 
this  way  to  produce  "  Green  "  Asparagus,  they  should 
be  taken  up  and  thrown  away,  as  they  are  practically 
useless  afterwards. 

Open-air  Culture. — It  may  be  useful  to  English 
readers  if  the  French  method  of  growing  Asparagus 
in  the  open  air  is  described.  So  long  as  the  soil  is  light 
and  rather  chalky,  deeply  cultivated  and  well  manured 
at  the  beginning,  the  difficulties  in  the  way  of  securing 
good  Asparagus  are  not  insuperable.  A  piece  of  land 
well  exposed  towards  the  south,  and  free  from  trees 
and  shrubs,  may  be  regarded  as  the  most  suitable 
place  for  an  Asparagus  plantation.  At  the  same  time 
shelter  from  the  north  and  east  by  walls,  fences,  or 
hedges  is  a  great  boon,  as  the  wind  from  those  quarters 
has  a  retarding  if  not  chilling  effect  upon  the  young 
growths  in  spring. 

Preparing  and  Planting  the  Beds. — Having  selected 
the  site,  the  soil  is  dug  about  18  in.  deep  and  a 


good  dressing  of  manure  is  incorporated  with  it,  so 
that  it  decays  completely  during  the  winter  months. 
In  the  spring — about  February — the  ground  is 
marked  out  in  beds,  each  one  being  a  metre  (39  in.) 
in  width,  except  the  first  and  last  beds,  which  are 
only  half  the  width  of  the  others.  The  soil  in  the 
second,  fourth,  sixth,  and  the  following  even-numbered 
beds  is  then  dug  a  good  spit  deep,  and  "  ridged  up," 
half  of  it  being  placed  on  the  odd  beds  i,  3,  5,  7,  etc., 
on  one  side,  and  half  on  the  other  as  shown  in  the 
diagram  (fig.  17).  The  trenches  marked  A,  B,  c,  etc., 



•rasa  3Q.,  y&yg&A 
,  p  A        3    IN  B  / 

I    i          i    I L_l i_ 


thus  formed  are  well  manured  and  deeply  dug.  Three 
"  drills,"  or  shallow  furrows,  are  then  drawn  from  one 
end  to  the  other,  one  being  exactly  in  the  centre,  and 
the  two  others  each  about  8  or  9  in.  from  the 
sides.  More  modern  growers,  however,  draw  only 
two  drills  in  each  trench  about  9  in.  from  each 
side,  so  that  more  space  is  given  to  the  plants.  The 
best  one-year-old  "  crowns  "  are  then  planted  in  each 
row  so  as  to  be  from  24  to  30  in.  apart,  the  plants 
in  one  row  being  angled  with  those  in  the  other. 

At  the  spot  where  each  crown  is  to  be  planted  a 
small  heap  of  soil,  about  2  in.  high,  is  raised  with 
the  hands,  and  on  this  the  young  Asparagus  plant 
is  placed,  taking  care  at  the  time  to  spread  the  roots 
out  radially  from  the  central  tuft.  A  small  stake  is 
placed  to  each  clump,  to  mark  its  position,  after  which 


the  crowns  are  carefully  covered  by  hand  with  a 
couple  of  inches  of  rich  gritty  soil.  Some  of  the  soil 
from  the  ridges  on  each  side  (see  fig.  17)  is  then  spread 
over  the  trenches  to  a  depth  of  5  or  6  in. 

Summer  Treatment. — During  the  summer  months  it 
will  be  necessary  to  keep  the  weeds  down  between  the 
rows  by  frequent  and  careful  use  of  the  hoe,  and 
occasional  soakings  with  water  will  also  be  beneficial 
during  very  dry  weather.  About  the  end  of  September 
or  early  in  October,  when  the  stems  have  begun  to 
wither,  they  may  be  cut  down  almost  level  with  the 
ground.  The  soil  is  then  carefully  scooped  away  from 
the  crown  of  each  plant  so  as  to  form  a  circular  basin 
about  8  in.  in  diameter.  A  little  heap  of  some 
rich  gritty  soil  and  well-decayed  manure  and  night 
soil  is  then  placed  in  the  basin  over  each  crown,  to 
serve  as  a  fresh  supply  of  nourishment  for  the  roots, 
and  also  to  throw  off  cold  and  heavy  rains  during  the 
winter  months.  When  performing  this  operation  the 
spots  where  any  plants  have  failed  should  be  marked 
with  a  stick  so  that  fresh  plants  may  take  their  place 
the  following  year. 

The  ridges  between  the  beds  (see  fig.  17)  may  be 
utilised  during  the  first  season  for  the  production  of 
early  Potatoes,  Dwarf  Beans,  Lettuces,  and  other 
salads  if  necessary,  but  late-maturing  crops  should  be 

Second  Years  Work. — At  the  end  of  March  or  early 
in  April,  all  vacant  places  having  been  replanted,  the 
surface  of  the  beds  is  lightly  pricked  up  with  a  flat- 
tined  fork  so  as  to  bury  the  manure  placed  over  the 
crowns  in  the  autumn.  At  the  same  period  the  ridges 
between  the  Asparagus  trenches  are  dug  over  and 


manured,  and  prepared  for  such  crops  as  early  Carrots, 
early  Potatoes,  Dwarf  Beans,  Lettuces,  Onions,  and 
even  Cabbages. 

About  the  end  of  April  or  early  in  May,  a  few  inches 
of  soil  should  be  drawn  up  round  each  clump  of  As- 
paragus shoots.  As  these  are  now  numerous,  it  is 
necessary  to  place  a  stake  about  a  foot  away  from 
the  base  of  each  clump,  inserting  it  obliquely  at  an 
angle  of  about  45°,  so  that  when  the  shoots  become 
long  enough  they  may  be  readily  secured  to  the  stakes. 
This  not  only  prevents  them  from  being  blown  about 
by  the  wind,  but  also  enables  the  thread-like  leaves 
(botanically  known  as  "  cladodes  ")  to  be  more  fully 
exposed  to  the  sunshine  under  whose  influence  only 
they  can  assimilate  carbonic  nourishment  from  the 
atmosphere  to  be  stored  up  in  the  subterranean 

Hoeings  and  waterings  are  to  be  attended  to  as  in 
the  first  year  during  the  summer  months.  In  the 
autumn  the  stems  are  again  cut  down  within  a  few 
inches  of  the  soil,  the  stakes  are  taken  away,  and  a 
good  dressing  of  rich  soil  and  manure  is  spread  over 
each  plant  after  the  old  soil  has  been  scraped  away 
from  the  top  of  it  in  the  way  already  described  (see 
p.  80). 

Third  Year's  Work. — About  the  middle  of  March 
an  examination  of  the  old  stems  sticking  above  the 
surface  of  the  soil  will  enable  one  to  see  which  are 
the  stronger  and  which  the  weaker  plants.  A  mound 
of  rich  soil  about  6  or  8  in.  high  is  then  placed  over 
those  with  the  stoutest  stems,  as  these  indicate  greatest 
strength.  The  weaker  crowns,  with  more  feeble 
stems,  are  not  treated  in  this  way,  but  are  to  be  allowed 



another  year's  growth  before  any  shoots  are  gathered 
from  them  ;  they  are,  however,  staked  and  otherwise 
attended  to  as  already  described  for  the  first  and 
second  years. 

The  stronger  crowns  over  which  the  mounds  of 
soil  have  been  placed  will  each  yield  three  or  four 
fine  shoots.  When  these  are  i  or  2  in.  through 
the  mound  of  soil,  and  their  tops  have  assumed  a 
purplish  tint,  they  are  fit  to  be  removed.  This  may 
be  done  with  a  special  Asparagus  knife,  or  perhaps 
better  still,  by  inserting  a  finger  behind  the  stalk 
required  so  that  when  bent  forward  it  easily  snaps 
off.  In  this  way  there  is  not  the  same  danger  of 
injuring  the  other  shoots  as  there  is  when  a  knife 
is  used.  Shoots  from  these  plants  may  be  gathered 
as  long  as  they  appear  until  the  middle  of  June,  but 
not  later.  All  cutting  should  cease  at  midsummer, 
so  that  the  plants  shall  not  become  exhausted  too 
much.  Stakes  should  be  placed  to  the  plants  as 
already  described,  but  before  doing  so,  the  little 
mounds  of  soil  placed  over  the  clumps  in  March 
should  be  spread  evenly  over  the  beds.  In  the  autumn, 
the  stems  are  cut  down  again,  the  soil  is  carefully  re- 
moved from  the  crowns  to  the  ridges,  and  in  November 
a  thin  layer  of  rich  manure  and  a  little  gritty  soil 
is  placed  over  the  plants. 

During  this  third  year  of  growth  the  ridges  between 
the  beds  should  be  dug  and  manured  in  the  spring 
and  prepared  for  such  crops  as  Early  Potatoes,  Carrots, 
Lettuces,  Spinach,  or  Dwarf  Beans,  etc.,  as  in  previous 

Fourth  and  Succeeding  Years'  Work. — This  is  precisely 
the  same  as  already  described  for  the  first  three 


years.  It  must  be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that 
there  will  be  more  crowns  to  cover  with  mounds  of 
soil  in  spring  of  the  fourth  year  than  there  were  in  the 
third  ;  and  there  will  be  still  more  crowns  for  cutting 
in  the  fifth  and  sixth  years  than  in  those  preceding 
them — until  every  clump  of  Asparagus  is  in  full 
bearing  and  thoroughly  established. 

Each  year  the  stout  shoots  only  should  be  gathered 
from  the  strongest  plants,  the  weakest  shoots  and 
plants  being  given  another  season  of  growth  to 
enable  them  to  gather  more  strength.  And  in  any 
case  no  shoots  should  be  gathered  after  the  middle 
of  June,  as  each  plant  must  be  allowed  to  develop 
a  certain  number  of  shoots  to  store  up  nourishment 
in  the  crowns  before  the  autumn. 

From  the  sixth  year  onwards,  the  mounds  placed 
over  the  crowns  in  March  may  be  a  foot  or  a  little 
more  in  height,  and  also  wider  at  the  base,  to  completely 
cover  the  clump  or  "  stool  "  of  the  plant  beneath. 
When  the  shoots  have  pushed  their  way  a  couple  of 
inches  through  the  mounds  they  will  have  become 
tipped  with  rose,  violet,  or  purple,  and  are  then  ready 
for  gathering — a  process  that  may  have  to  be  repeated 
almost  every  day,  according  to  the  rapidity  of  the 
growth.  After  cutting  has  ceased,  the  mounds  are 
levelled,  and  the  plants  are  securely  staked  and  tied 
in  the  way  already  described.  In  October  the  stems 
are  to  be  cut  down,  leaving  a  few  inches  sticking  out 
of  the  soil  to  indicate  their  position.  Some  of  the 
old  soil  is  taken  away  from  the  crowns,  and  a  nice 
compost  of  manure  and  a  little  gritty  soil  is  sub- 
stituted for  it.  Once  the  plants  are  in  full  bearing, 
an  extra  special  dressing  of  manure  may  be  given 


about  every  third  or  fourth  year,  and  plantations 
treated  in  the  way  described  will  produce  thousands 
of  shoots  for  fifteen  to  twenty  years. 

As  the  clumps,  "  stools,"  or  crowns  of  Asparagus 
increase  in  diameter,  the  ridges  between  the  beds 
gradually  diminish  in  width  each  succeeding  year, 
so  that  it  becomes  impossible  sooner  or  later  to  culti- 
vate other  crops  on  them  as  during  the  first  years 
of  forming  the  plantation. 

Argenteuil  Asparagus. — Argenteuil  —  an  ancient 
town  about  six  miles  north-west  of  Paris — has  been 
famous  for  centuries  for  its  Asparagus  plantations,  and 
in  the  twentieth  century  the  industry  is  as  active  as 
ever,  if  not  more  so.  The  methods  of  culture  de- 
scribed in  the  preceding  pages  are  followed  pretty 
closely,  but  the  Argenteuil  growers  have  their  own 
system,  which,  however,  differs  only  in  detail. 

When  starting  an  Asparagus  plantation  the  site 
chosen  is  first  of  all  given  a  liberal  dressing  of  manure — 
about  24  tons  to  the  acre — in  the  autumn  months. 
In  February  or  March  drills  or  furrows  about  4  in. 
deep  are  drawn  from  one  end  of  the  ground  to  the 
other,  3  ft.  and  often  4  ft.  apart.  The  soil  is  then 
drawn  up  on  each  side  so  as  to  form  ridges.  Between 
these  the  Asparagus  crowns  are  planted  in  March  or 
April,  i  metre  (39  in.)  apart.  A  circular  basin, 
about  a  foot  wide,  is  made,  4  or  5  in.  deep,  and  in 
the  centre  of  it  a  little  mound  of  soil  is  raised  with  the 
hands.  The  Asparagus  plant  is  then  placed  on 
the  top  of  the  mound,  the  roots  are  spread  out  in  all 
directions,  after  which  the  crown  is  covered  with 
a  few  handfuls  of  rich  soil  and  well-decayed  manure 
— the  latter  often  being  night  soil.  During  the 


summer  months,  the  staking  of  the  plants,  hoeing, 
and  watering,  and  other  operations  already  described, 
are  carried  on  until  the  stems  are  cut  down  in  the 
autumn  (see  p.  80).  When  the  beds  have  been 
established  six  years  they  are  in  full  bearing,  but 
from  the  third  year  onwards  a  few  of  the  best  shoots 
are  gathered  each  season  from  the  "  crowns  "  that 
have  been  specially  moulded  up  for  the  purpose. 
When  in  full  bearing,  the  beds  produce  shoots  for 
six  or  eight  weeks,  and  these  are  generally  gathered 
early  in  the  morning,  as  they  then  retain  their  fresh- 
ness for  a  much  longer  period.  From  the  sixth  year 
onwards,  it  is  necessary  to  give  a  good  dressing  of 
manure  every  other  year,  and  with  proper  attention 
the  beds  may  continue  to  yield  good  crops  of  Asparagus 
for  twenty-five  or  even  thirty  years.  Special  attention, 
however,  must  be  paid  to  the  following  cultural 
details : 

1.  The  plants  should  be  3  ft.  or  4  ft.  apart  at  the 

2.  Manure    every    autumn    until    the    sixth    year ; 
afterwards  every  other  year. 

3.  Earth  up  the  crowns  in  spring  (see  p.  81). 

4.  Never   gather   the    shoots    after   the    middle    of 

5.  Level   the   mound   of   soil   over   the   crowns   in 


6.  Expose  the  top  roots  to  the  air  in  October  by 
drawing  the  soil  away  from  them  carefully  with  the 

7.  In  spring,  clean  each  clump  or  crown  from  old 
or  dead  shoots  and  stems. 

8.  Stake  the  plants  every  year  (see  p.  81). 



9.  Cut  only  in  accordance  with  the  size  and  vigour 
of  the  plant. 

10.  Always  pick  by  hand  instead  of  cutting  with 
the  Asparagus  knife. 

By  intelligent  attention  to  these  details  the  Argen- 
teuil  growers  have  made  themselves  famous  in  the 
Asparagus  world. 

CUTTING  ASPARAGUS. — When  the  shoots  of  Asparagus 
are  sufficiently  advanced  in  growth  to  be  picked,  some 
little  care  is  necessary  in  detaching  them  from  the 
parent  rootstock  hidden  beneath  the  soil.  The  pro- 
fessional grower  scorns  to  use  any  instrument  except 
his  fingers.  Having  scraped  a  little  of  the  soil  away, 
he  inserts  one  or  two  fingers  carefully  behind  the  re- 
quired shoot,  gently  bends  it  forward,  and  in  this  way 
snaps  it  off  without  injury  to  the  other  shoots.  Various 
knives  are  used,  however.  One  kind  has  a  long  shank 
inserted  in  a  wooden  handle,  while  the  cutting  blade 
is  curved  like  a  small  scythe,  and  has  a  saw-like  edge. 
Flat-bladed  and  semi-circular  bladed  gouges  are  also 
used.  Whatever  instrument  is  used  should  be  pushed 
carefully  down  amongst  the  shoots.  A  dexterous 
twist  is  then  given  with  the  wrist,  by  means  of  which 
the  shoot  is  severed  at  the  base,  and  is  brought  above 
the  soil. 

BUNCHING  ASPARAGUS. — To  make  the  Asparagus 
shoots  into  nice  bundles  as  seen  in  the  shops  and 
markets,  special  frames,  moulds,  or  "  bunchers  "  are 
used,  as  shown  in  fig.  18.  It  is  quite  an  art,  making 
and  tying  the  bundles.  The  shoots  are  first  of  all 
picked  over,  and  all  those  too  small  or  too  thin  for 
the  mould  are  rejected,  and  afterwards  made  into 
bundles  by  themselves,  and  sold  as  "  Sprue."  The 


best  shoots  are  again  graded  into  firsts,  seconds,  and 
thirds.  The  "  firsts  "  or  best  shoots  are  first  of  all 
placed  in  the  frame  so  that  they  shall  be  on  the  outside 
of  the  bundle  when  tied.  The  next  best  shoots  are 
added,  and  the  smallest  are  placed  in  the  centre. 
When  the  required  number  has  been  placed  in  the 
frame,  the  bundle  is  tied  up  firmly  with  two  osier 
twigs.  These  are  previously  steeped  in  water  to 


The  board  E,  with  fixtures  B  and  c,  moves  backwards  and  forwards. 
The  crosspiece  F  is  for  durability.  The  dotted  circles  near  E  indicate 
that  there  are  two  cavities  underneath  for  the  fingers  to  slide  the  board. 
When  E  is  pushed  back  towards  A,  the  Asparagus  stems  then  rest  on  B 
and  c,  with  the  points  towards  A. 

make  them  more  pliable  for  the  purpose.  When 
complete,  a  bundle  of  Asparagus  measures  from 
5  to  7  in.  in  diameter.  Some  growers,  and  pro- 
bably the  most  sensible  ones,  do  not  mix  thick  and 
thin  shoots  in  the  same  bundle,  but  make  them  up 
separately  after  having  graded  them.  In  any  case, 
the  neater  the  bundles  are  made,  and  the  fresher  and 
more  equal  in  size  the  individual  shoots  in  them,  the 
more  likely  are  they  to  realise  a  ready  sale  ;  whilst 
badly  made  bundles  consisting  of  irregular  shoots 


are  likely  to  leave  the  grower  a  sadder  if  not  wiser 

When  one  bears  in  mind  that  the  best  Asparagus 
fetches  from  6s.  to  155.  per  bundle  in  market  in  the 
season,  there  is  every  incentive  to  select  only  the 
best  shoots,  and  pack  them  carefully. 

As  the  shoots  do  not  retain  their  freshness  beyond 
five  or  six  days,  they  should  be  spread  out  on  fresh- 
cut  rye  or  other  grass  in  a  cool  dark  place  free  from 

ASPARAGUS  PESTS  AND  DISEASES. — The  larvae  of  the 
"  Asparagus  Beetle  "  (Crioceris  asparagi)  often  do 
much  mischief  to  young  Asparagus  plants..  The 
beetles  lay  their  eggs  on  the  stalks,  and  in  due  course 
the  young  maggots  feed  upon  the  more  tender  portions, 
doing  great  damage  to  the  growth.  The  beetles  them- 
selves may  be  picked  off  by  hand,  or  knocked  from 
the  stems  by  tapping  with  a  stick,  so  that  they  are 
not  allowed  to  lay  their  eggs.  By  syringing  the 
plants  once  or  twice  a  week  from  April  to  June  with 
soft  soap  and  quassia  chip  and  nicotine  solution,  or 
any  other  well-known  insecticide,  they  will  be  rendered 
distasteful  to  the  pests,  and  these  latter  will  be  killed 
if  they  happen  to  be  feeding  at  the  time  of  spraying. 
Slugs  and  snails  are  also  to  be  guarded  against,  as 
they  eat  the  tender  young  shoots  when  pushing 
through  the  soil.  They  may  be  destroyed  by  dusting 
with  lime  and  soot  three  or  four  mornings  or  evenings 
in  succession  and  by  keeping  the  beds  cleared  of  any 
refuse  in  which  they  conceal  themselves. 

The  "  Asparagus  rust  "  (Puccinia  Asparagi},  which 
sometimes  attacks  forced  crowns  when  the  temperature 
is  irregular,  rarely  appears  on  properly  grown  open- 


air  crops.  As  a  preventive,  the  attacked  shoots  are 
detached  and  burnt  ;  and  in  the  autumn  when  the 
stems  have  been  cut  down,  but  before  removing  the 
soil  from  the  crowns,  the  beds  are  watered  with  a 
copper  sulphate  solution — about  I  Ib.  of  sulphate 
of  copper  being  used  to  100  pints  of  water. 


Although  Haricot  Beans  (Phaseolus  vulgaris)  are 
not  now  grown  so  extensively,  as  a  forced  crop,  by 
gardeners  near  Paris  as  they  were  formerly,  it  may 
be  worth  while  describing  the  process.  Being  so  easily 
grown  in  the  open  air  during  the  summer  months,  it 
is  obvious  that  unless  a  commercial  gardener  can 
produce  his  crops  early  in  the  year  long  before  the 
open-air  ones,  he  stands  no  chance  whatever  of  being 
remunerated  for  his  labour. 

Although  there  are  now  many  varieties  of  Dwarf 
Beans,  those  suitable  for  early  or  forced  crops  are 
somewhat  restricted.  Amongst  the  best  for  the 
purpose  are  :  Early  Dwarf  Frame  Haricot  (flageolet 
nain  triomphe  des  chassis),  which  grows  6  to  7  in. 
high,  is  very  early,  and  has  green  seeds.  As  it  is 
rather  fastidious,  care  must  be  taken  not  to  keep 
the  seeds  too  moist  when  germinating.  The  Early 
Black  Belgian  Haricot  (H.  noir  hdtif  de  Belgique)  is 
a  black-seeded  variety,  next  in  earliness  to  the  first 
named,  and  a  much  stronger  grower  requiring  more 
space.  The  Early  Chalandray  (H.  tres-hdtif  de 
Chalandray)  has  yellow  seeds ;  the  Early  Dwarf 
Etampes  (H.  flageolet  tres-hdtif  d'Etampes),  a  strong 
grower,  with  white  seeds  ;  and  H.  flageolet  d  feuilles 


cloquees  may  also  be  grown.  Formerly  the  Dwarf  Dutch 
Haricot  (nain  de  Hollande)  was  a  popular  kind  for 
early  forcing,  but  has  been  superseded  largely  by 
those  mentioned.  One  variety  with  yellow  seeds  I 
think  likely  to  succeed  in  England  is  known  as  "  Six 
Weeks."  I  have  grown  it  in  the  open  air  in  the 
usual  way,  and  much  to  my  astonishment  I  picked 
the  first  pod  exactly  six  weeks  after  the  seeds  were 

CULTURE. — About  the  middle  of  December  a  hot-bed 
varying  from  12  to  24  in.  in  thickness  is  prepared, 
and  on  which  a  temperature  of  65°  to  70°  Fahr.  is 
maintained.  A  compost  made  up  of  two-thirds 
gritty  loam  and  one-third  old  manure  or  leaf-soil  is 
spread  over  the  bed  to  a  depth  of  6  or  7  in.  The 
seeds  are  then  either  sown  where  the  plants  are  to 
develop,  allowing  sixteen  or  twenty-four  plants  to 
each  light  eventually ;  or  they  may  be  sown  in  pots 
or  pans  in  a  hot-bed  or  greenhouse,  from  which  they 
are  afterwards  to  be  transplanted.  This  operation 
takes  place  as  soon  as  the  seed-leaves  are  well 
developed,  and  is  considered  to  be  an  advantage, 
because  the  plants  do  not  grow  so  tall  and  yield  a 
larger  supply  of  pods.  Each  young  Bean  plant  is 
buried  up  to  the  seed-leaves  in  the  soil ;  if  this  is 
inclined  to  dryness,  a  gentle  watering  must  be  given, 
and  the  lights  must  not  be  opened  for  a  couple  of 
days  until  growth  has  recommenced.  Afterwards,  air 
must  be  given  on  all  fine  days  to  keep  the  plants  green 
and  sturdy.  Protection  from  frost  is  secured  by 
covering  with  mats  at  night-time,  the  same  being 
removed  at  the  earliest  moment  each  morning.  In 
the  event  of  severe  weather,  the  frames  must  be 


banked  up  or  "  lined  "  with  manure,  more  or  less 
fresh,  to  maintain  the  requisite  temperature  within. 

When  the  plants  touch  the  glass  they  may  be 
bent  gently  towards  the  top  of  the  frame,  and  kept 
in  that  position  by  thin  bamboo  or  other  sticks  placed 
across  them.  Apart  from  this,  the  frames  may  also 
be  raised  a  little  on  pots  or  bricks,  taking  care,  how- 
ever, that  the  linings  are  made  up  well  to  prevent 
the  cold  outside  air  from  entering  at  the  base. 

By  this  method  of  cultivation — somewhat  costly 
and  tedious  apparently — the  first  pods  may  be  picked 
six,  eight,  or  ten  weeks  after  the  seed  has  been  sown. 
As  the  season  advances,  succession  crops  will  appear 
more  quickly.  The  pods  should  be  picked  regularly 
and  systematically  before  they  get  too  old,  as  this 
is  the  only  way  to  induce  the  plants  to  continue  to 
yield  for  a  long  time.  After  March  it  is  not  worth  while 
growing  Dwarf  Beans  on  hot-beds  in  this  way,  as  the 
crops  for  the  open  air  are  being  prepared. 

Both  "  dwarf  "  and  "  runner  "  Beans  have  long 
been  grown  in  greenhouses  in  England  during  the 
earlier  months  of  the  year — the  plants  being  either 
in  pots,  or  placed  in  beds.  A  temperature  of  65°  to 
75°  Fahr.  must  be  maintained,  and  care  must  be 
taken  to  keep  the  atmosphere  just  in  the  right  state 
of  humidity — not  too  saturated  on  the  one  hand,  or 
too  dry  on  the  other. 

CLOCHE  CULTURE. — Early  crops  in  the  open  air  may 
be  secured  by  sowing  seeds  in  gentle  heat  in  April, 
afterwards  transferring  the  plants  to  the  open  air 
when  the  seed-leaves  are  developed,  placing  three 
plants  under  every  cloche.  No  air  is  given  for  a 
few  days,  to  give  the  plants  a  fresh  start,  but  after- 


wards  as  much  as  possible  is  given,  until  at  length 
the  cloches  are  taken  off  altogether  when  there  is 
no  longer  any  fear  of  frost.  For  good  early  Beans 
as  much  as  gd.  and  is.  per  Ib.  is  often  realised  in 

To  have  Dwarf  Beans  from  October  onwards,  seeds 
may  be  sown  in  the  open  air  on  warm  sunny  borders. 
A  sharp  eye,  however,  must  be  kept  on  the  early 
frosts  in  September  and  October.  To  guard  against 
them,  a  light  trellis  of  sticks  should  be  made,  and 
placed  over  the  plants.  At  night-time,  mats  may 
be  spread  over  the  trellis  to  protect  the  plants  from 


Nice  Cabbages  in  the  early  spring  are  always  highly 
appreciated,  and  when  in  market  early  are  almost 
sure  to  command  good  prices.  Amongst  the  best 



varieties  for  the  purpose,  mention  may  be  made  of 
the  large  and  small  forms  of  "  Ox  Heart,"  or  Cceur 
de  Bceuf,  (fig.  19)  and  "  Early  York."  There  are  several 



varieties  of  "  Ox-Heart  "  Cabbages,  one  particularly 
early  being  called  Pomme  de  Paris. 

Other  good  sorts  are  "Express"  (fig.  20),  "Very 
Early  Etampes  "  (fig.  21),  and  "  St.  Denis." 

About  the  end  of  August,  or  early  in  September, 
seeds  are  sown,  and 
these  dates  are  very 
strictly  adhered  to. 
If  sown  much  earlier 
or  later  the  plants 
afterwards  are  in- 
clined to  run  to  seed 
instead  of  forming 
heads.  About  the 
end  of  September  the 
young  plants  are  "_* 


ready     for    pricking 

out  into  beds,  care  being  taken  at  the  time  to  reject 

all  blind,  deformed,  or  diseased  plants. 

During  November,  sometimes  even  at  the  end  of 
October,  the  plants  thus  pricked  out  will  be  ready 
for  final  planting.  The  ground  is  deeply  dug,  well 
manured,  and  levelled  in  advance,  and  the  young 
plants  have  the  stems  buried  until  the  lower  leaves 
rest  on  the  surface  of  the  soil.  They  are  spaced  out 
1 8  in.  to  2  ft.  apart  in  shallow  furrows  about  a  foot 

The  soil  in  which  the  Cabbages  are  to  mature  should 
be  deeply  dug  and  well-manured,  whether  light  or 
heavy  in  its  nature.  Parisian  gardeners  are  particu- 
larly fond  of  night  soil  as  a  manure,  especially  for 
Cabbage  crops ;  but  nearly  all  decayed  vegetable 
refuse  is  also  worked  into  the  soil  to  enrich  it  in  humus. 


In  the  case  of  light  soils,  however,  the  sowing  and 
final  planting  may  be  done  a  week  or  even  a  fortnight 
later  than  in  the  case  of  soils  that  are  naturally  inclined 
to  be  heavy  or  chalky. 

From  the  same  batch  of  seedlings  it  is  possible  to 
arrange  for  two  distinct  crops.  This  is  done  by 
placing  some  of  the  plants  on  warm  and  sheltered 
borders  that  have  been  deeply  dug  and  well  manured, 
as  already  described.  Furrows  4  to  5  in.  deep 
are  drawn,  and  into  these  the  Cabbages  are  planted. 
The  soil  thus  drawn  up  in  little  ridges  on  each  side 
of  the  shallow  furrow  serves  to  protect  the  "  collar  " 
of  the  young  plant  during  the  winter  months.  In 
the  course  of  time  the  soil  from  the  ridges  gradually 
crumbles  down,  and,  coming  in  contact  with  the 
plants,  keeps  them  warmer  than  would  otherwise 
be  the  case  with  plants  on  a  perfectly  level  piece  of 

The  distance  between  the  rows  for  winter  planting 

varies  according  to 
the  nature  of  the  soil 
and  the  growth  of 
the  varieties  planted. 
For  the  "  York  " 
Cabbages  and 
"  Early  Express  " 
varieties,  the  rows 

FIG.  22. — PARIS  MARKET  OX-HEART  may  be  about    12  in. 

CABBAGE.  T      ,  -,  . , 

apart.      In  these  the 

plants  should  be  15  to  18  in.  apart.  For  the  larger- 
growing  varieties,  however,  such  as  the  "  Large  Ox 
Heart,"  "  Large  York,"  "  St.  Denis/'  and  "  Market 
Ox  Heart  "  (moyen  de  la  Halle)  (fig.  22),  the  rows  may 


be  1 6  or  18  in.  apart  and  the  plants  in  them  16  to 
20  in.  asunder. 

Planting,  of  course,  is  done  in  mild  weather,  many 
growers  preferring  to  use  the  trowel  for  the  purpose 
instead  of  the  dibber.  If  possible  a  good  watering 
is  also  given  after  planting  to  settle  the  soil  nicely 
round  the  roots  of  each  plant. 

In  cold  or  bleak  localities  the  soil  on  the  south  side 
of  the  rows  is  drawn  up  carefully  to  the  lower  leaves 
of  the  plants,  thus  making  a  protecting  bank  so  that 
the  plants  shall  not  suffer  from  quick  thawings  after 
a  severe  frost,  or  from  the  effects  of  a  fall  of  snow. 
Some  growers  even  go  to  the  trouble  during  very 
severe  frosts  to  cover  their  Cabbages  with  litter,  or 
the  straw  from  a  manure  heap,  bracken,  or  anything 
else  that  is  light  and  handy.  Short  dry  manure  may 
also  be  worked  in  between  the  rows,  as  still  further 
protection  against  severe  frosts  and  subsequent 

During  the  spring  months  the  plants  are  hoed  well, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  mould  is  drawn  up  carefully 
about  the  stems.  This  not  only  serves  as  a  protection 
for  the  plants,  but  it  also  helps  them  to  resist  strong 
winds  and  at  the  same  time  encourages  the  development 
of  still  more  roots  from  the  joints.  From  March 
onwards,  if  the  weather  is  at  all  genial,  a  good  watering 
now  and  then  will  be  beneficial  if  the  rains  have  not 
already  made  the  soil  sufficiently  damp.  When  the 
plants  are  well-established,  a  little  nitrate  of  soda— 
about  I  Ib.  to  every  40  square  yards — may  be  sprinkled 
over  the  soil,  and  afterwards  worked  in  with  the  hoe. 

Cabbages  grown  in  the  way  described  commence 
to  turn  in  on  the  warm,  sheltered  borders  during  April 


and  early  in  May,  and  are  followed  by  the  others 
grown  in  the  open  ground. 

Some  growers,  when  they  see  the  earlier  Cabbages 
beginning  to  heart,  gently  raise  the  large  outer  leaves 
upwards  to  the  top,  and  tie  them  round  the  centre  with 
a  piece  of  raffia  or  rye  grass.  This  makes  the  hearts 
eventually  more  tender  and  of  a  better  flavour,  while 
it  accelerates  hearting  up.  It  is  also  an  advantage 
to  have  the  Cabbages  thus  tied  up  when  one  comes 
to  pack  them  for  market. 

EARLY  SUMMER  CABBAGES. — For  a  supply  of  Cab- 


bages  during  the  summer  months  an  early  variety  called 
"  Plat  de  Paris  "  (fig.  23)  is  much  favoured.  It  is  so 
short  stemmed  that  the  large,  flat  heads  appear  to  sit 
on  the  ground.  Seeds  of  this  variety  are  sown  under 
cloches  or  in  a  gentle  hot-bed  about  the  middle  of 
February,  and  are  afterwards  pricked  out  in  nice  soil 
at  the  rate  of  400  plants  to  a  light,  or  30  under  a  cloche, 
when  the  seed-leaves  are  well  developed.  A  little  air 
is  given  when  they  have  recovered,  to  keep  them 
sturdy.  Early  in  April  these  young  Cabbages  will  be 
ready  for  the  open  air,  and  may  be  planted  by  them- 


selves  or  between  rows  of  Lettuces  that  are  to  be 
cut  in  May.  After  the  Lettuces  are  taken  off,  the  soil 
is  hoed  well,  and  if  inclined  to  be  dry,  a  good  soaking 
of  water  is  given  occasionally.  These  Cabbages  are 
ready  by  the  middle  of  June. 


The  Cardoon  (Cynara  Cardunculus)  is  a  perennial 
composite,  native  of  Southern  Europe.  It  grows  from 
4  to  6  ft.  high  or  more,  and  has  large  pinnate  leaves, 
grey-green  on  the  upper  surface  and  almost  white 
beneath.  In  many  varieties  there  is  a  yellow  or  brown 
spine,  often  over  \  in.  long,  in  the  angle  of  each 
division  of  the  leaves.  The  fleshy  leaf-stalks,  when 
blanched,  form  the  eatable  portion  of  the  plant,  as 
well  as  the  thick,  fleshy  main  roots. 

In  many  French  gardens  the  Cardoon  is  an  important 
crop.  There  are  several  varieties  grown,  such  as  the 
"  Prickly  Tours,"  "  Ivory-white,"  "  Spanish,"  and 
"  Artichoke-leaved  "  or  "  Puvis,"  etc.  Of  these  the 
first-named—"  Prickly  Tours  "—is  most  highly  appre- 
ciated by  the  market-gardeners  of  Tours  and  Paris, 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that  it  is  more  spiny  than 
any  other  kind.  It  is,  however,  also  the  hardiest  and 
keeps  better  than  the  others,  although  all  are  susceptible 
to  frost. 

Cardoons  are  always  raised  from  seeds,  never  from 
suckers.  These  are  usually  sown  out-of-doors  in  May, 
in  holes  or  pockets  filled  with  rich  gritty  mould — three 
or  four  seeds  being  placed  in  each  pocket.  Or  seeds 
may  be  sown  in  the  latter  half  of  April  on  a  hot-bed 
with  a  temperature  of  65°  to  70°  Fahr.  The  seedlings 



appear  in  about  10  days  on  the  hot-bed,  those  in  the 
open  air  taking  from  15  to  18  days  to  germinate  in 

When  the  young  plants  in  the  hot-bed  have  developed 
their  seed-leaves,  they  are  potted  up  singly  into  small 
pots  and  plunged  in  the  hot-bed  again.  They  are 
lightly  sprinkled  and  kept  rather  close  for  some  time, 
and  are  generally  ready  for  planting  in  the  open  air 
about  the  middle  of  May,  or  a  little  later  according 
to  the  weather. 

In  the  case  of  the  plants  raised  in  the  open  air,  when 
the  seedlings  are  well  developed  all  but  the  best  one 
in  each  little  hole  are  destroyed. 

Whether  the  plants  are  raised  in  hot-beds  or  in  the 
open  air,  it  is  essential  to  have  them  in  rows  at  least 
4  ft.,  but  if  possible  5  ft.  apart.  In  all  cases  the 
young  plants  are  placed  in  holes  or  trenches  about  a 
foot  deep.  The  soil  should  be  deeply  dug  and  heavily 
manured  in  advance,  the  finest  leaves  being  obtained 
on  a  sandy  or  chalky  clay. 

As  the  plants  grow  slowly  at  first  the  space  between 
them  may  be  utilised  for  raising  such  quick  crops  as 
Radishes,  Carrots,  Lettuces,  Dwarf  Beans,  Spinach, 
early  Cabbages,  etc.  The  soil  in  the  meantime  is  kept 
perfectly  clean  with  the  frequent  use  of  the  hoe,  while 
the  Cardoons  are  supplied  with  an  abundance  of  water 
during  the  summer  months. 

BLANCHING. — This  is  essential.  The  leaf -stalks  are 
tied  up  in  two  or  three  places  according  to  length,  in 
the  same  way  as  Celery,  bearing  in  mind  that  the 
fierce  and  sharp  spines  on  the  leaves  are  capable  of 
causing  some  trouble.  To  avoid  being  pricked  with 
the  spines,  a  strong  stake,  with  a  piece  of  stout  string 


attached,  is  driven  into  the  ground  near  the  plant. 
The  string  is  then  wound  round  and  round  the  plant, 
pulling  the  spiny  leaves  together  into  a  bundle  ;  or, 
"  three  sticks  are  used,  one  of  them  short,  and 
connected  with  the  other  two  by  strong  twine.  The 
workman,  standing  at  a  safe  distance,  pushes  the  two 
handles  under  the  plant,  and  then  going  to  the 
other  side  and  seizing  them,  soon  gathers  up  the 
prickly  leaves.  Another  workman  then  ties  it  up  in 
three  places,  and  straw  is  placed  round  and  tied  so 
as  quite  to  exclude  the  light.  In  three  weeks  the 
vegetable  is  as  well  blanched  and  as  tender  as  could 
be  desired.  To  blanch  the  Cardoon  properly  and 
render  the  leaves  perfectly  tender,  it  should  be  de- 
prived of  light  and  air  for  at  least  three  weeks.  It  is 
then  cut  just  below  the  surface  of  the  earth,  and 
divested  of  its  straw  covering  ;  the  withered  leaves 
are  sliced  off  and  the  root  trimmed  up  neatly " 
(Robinson) . 

This  work  is  done  during  October.  If  it  is  desired 
to  preserve  Cardoons,  the  stems  are  tied  up  as  described, 
the  entire  plant  is  taken  up  carefully  with  a  ball  of 
soil  round  the  roots,  and  is  plunged  in  well-decayed 
manure  or  leaf  mould  in  a  dark  cellar  free  from  frost. 


The  Carrot  (Daucus  Carota)  is  brought  to  great 
perfection  in  French  gardens,  and  vast  quantities  of 
juicy,  tender  roots  are  grown  year  after  year.  The 
smaller-rooted  varieties  are  preferred  especially  by 
intensive  growers,  as  they  are  easily  forced,  are  far 
superior  to  the  larger  kinds,  and  find  a  more  ready 


sale  not  only  in  the  central  markets  of  Paris,  but  also 
in  Covent  Garden  and  other  English  markets. 
The  kinds  chiefly  grown  are  — 

I.  Paris  Forcing  Carrot  (syn.  "  Carotte  rouge  d 
forcer  Parisienne  ").  —  This  is  a  comparatively  new 
variety,  considered  to  be  somewhat  earlier  than  the 
"  French  Forcing  "  or  "  Early  Forcing  Horn  Carrot." 
The  roots  are  somewhat  similar  in  shape,  but  the  skin 

is  of  a  deep 
orange  -red 
colour.  It  is 
highly  recom- 
mended  for 

2.  The  French 
Forcing  or  Early 
Forcing  Horn 
Carrot  (syns.  : 

FIG.  24.  —  FRENCH  FORCING  OR  EARLY  FORCING    "  C  Ci  Y  0  tt  & 

"  C.  grelot,"  "  C.  Toupie,"  fig.  24).—  This  is  the  smallest 
and  one  of  the  earliest  Carrots  grown  in  hot-beds. 
The  roots  are  almost  round,  ij  to  2  in.  in  diameter, 
suddenly  narrowed  into  a  long  slender  thread-like 
extremity.  When  forced  in  hot-beds  the  skin  is 
generally  pale  or  straw-yellow  in  colour  ;  but  it  as- 
sumes a  scarlet  tint  when  grown  in  the  open  air.  The 
roots  are  very  tender  and  of  excellent  flavour. 

3.  Scarlet  Horn  Carrot  or  Dutch  Horn  Carrot  (syns.  : 
"  Carotte  rouge  courte  hdtive,"  "  C.  rouge  courte  d'Hol- 
lande,"  "  C.  Bellot,"  fig.  25).—  This  excellent  and 
tender  variety  is  usually  grown  as  a  first-early  crop 
in  the  open  air.  The  roots  are  about  3  in.  long, 



and  between  i  and  2  in.  thick,  the  skin  being 
deep  scarlet,  while  the  shape  is  cylindrical  or  long 
top-shaped,  abruptly  ending  in  a  thread-like  rootlet. 
It  may  be  grown  in  hot-beds  in  the  same  way  as  French 
Forcing  Carrot,  but  does  not  mature  so  quickly. 
4.  Half-long  Scarlet  Carentan. — This  is  an  early 


FIG.    26. — SCARLET 

and  finely  coloured  Carrot,  excellent  for  later  forced 
crops  or  for  first  crops  in  the  open.  The  roots  are 
narrowly  cylindrical,  suddenly  ending  in  a  thread-like 
tail  (fig.  26). 

5.  Half- long  Nantes  Scarlet  Carrot  (syns. :  "  Carotte 
rouge  demi-longue  nantaise,"  "  Carotte  sans  cceur  "). — 
This  tender  and  fine-flavoured  Carrot  is  good  for 
early  crops  in  the  open  air,  but  is  scarcely  profitable 
enough  for  forcing.  The  roots  are  bluntly  cylindrical 




in  shape,  4  in.  or  so  long,  and  between  ij  to  2  in. 
thick,  with  a  deep  red  skin.  It  has  very  little  core 
or  heart,  hence  one  of  the  French  names,  "  sans 
cceur"  (fig.  27). 

There  are  many  other  varieties  of  Carrots,  but  as 
they  are  chiefly  for  open-air  culture  they  need  no 

special  mention  here. 
FIRST  CROP  s. — 
Seeds  of  Paris  Forc- 
ing or  Early  Forcing 
Horn  are  sown  for 
the  first  crop  during 
October,  on  finely 
prepared  mould 
about  6  in.  deep  on 
the  surface  of  the 
mild  hot-bed.  After 
sowing  the  seeds  and 
slightly  covering 
them  with  soil,  they 
should  be  gently 
beaten  down  with  a  piece  of  flat  board.  Very  often, 
if  not  always  indeed,  Radishes  are  sown  at  the  same 
time,  but  before  the  Carrots  and  a  little  deeper.  Ger- 
mination takes  place  in  about  a  fortnight,  and  from 
this  time  onwards  air  is  given  on  all  occasions  when 
the  weather  is  favourable,  if  only  for  half  an  hour 
or  so  each  day.  This  prevents  etiolation  or  yellowing, 
and  encourages  the  proper  development  of  the  leaves 
and  roots. 

In  November,  and  again  in  December,  sowings  of 
the  same  varieties  may  be  made  on  hot-beds  about 
18  in.  thick,  coated  with  fine  mould  to  a  depth  of 



6  in.,  and  with  a  temperature  ranging  from  65°  to 
80°  Fahr.  At  this  period  the  seeds  are  sown  rather 
thickly,  about  3  oz.  to  100  square  yards.  The 
mould  covering  the  manure  is  mostly  humus  from 
old  hot-beds  ;  it  gives  the  skins  of  the  Carrots  a  much 
brighter  colour  and  a  more  tender  flavour  than  can 
be  obtained  from  ordinary  garden  soil. 

Over  Carrot  seed  Radishes  may  be  also  sown  ;  and 
from  30  to  36  Black  Gotte  Cabbage  Lettuces  may  be 
planted  over  them  in  each  light.  These  Lettuces  will 
be  fit  to  cut  in  January.  As  the  Radishes  develop 
quickly  they  are  gathered  before  any  damage  is  likely 
to  be  done  either  to  the  Carrots  or  the  Lettuces — the 
latter  of  course  being  mature  long  before  the  Carrots — 
which  will  not  be  ready  until  early  in  April.  A 
reference  to  the  chapters  on  Cauliflowers,  Radishes, 
Lettuces,  etc.,  will  show  that  Carrots  are  nearly  always 
covered  in  the  early  stages  with  crops  of  a  different 
character — usually  just  after  the  seed  has  been  sown. 

During  growth  attention  must  be  given  to  watering, 
taking  care  that  the  beds  are  never  allowed  to  become 
too  dry.  By  keeping  the  manure  in  the  pathways 
well  moistened,  there  is  no  need  to  water  the  beds  in 
the  early  stages,  as  sufficient  moisture  is  absorbed  by 
capillary  attraction  (see  p.  15). 

If  the  weather  is  very  severe  and  frosty,  hot  manure 
must  be  placed  between  and  around  the  frames  to 
maintain  the  requisite  temperature  within.  In  mild 
weather,  of  course,  less  manure  will  be  required  between 
the  frames  than  in  cold  weather. 

Towards  the  end  of  March,  if  the  weather  is 
considered  mild  enough,  the  frames  are  taken  off  the 
Carrots  and  placed  over  other  crops  such  as 


Melons  ;  but  then  the  Carrots  will  not  mature  quite  so 

During  February  and  March,  seeds  of  "  Scarlet 
Horn  "  or  "  Half-long  Nantes  Scarlet  "  Carrots  may 
be  sown  on  open  beds,  without  the  protection  of 
lights.  Straw  mats  will  afford  sufficient  protection 
from  frost  for  these  sowings.  To  keep  the  mats  off 
the  Carrots,  two  rails  are  fixed  on  stakes  driven  into 
the  bed  on  each  side.  These  Carrots  succeed  those 
from  the  earlier  sowings,  and  fill  in  the  gap  between 
those  sown  in  the  open  ground. 

After  the  Carrots  sown  in  February  and  March 
have  been  gathered,  Radishes  are  sown  on  the  same 
beds  ;  and  when  the  Radishes  have  been  pulled, 
their  place  may  be  taken  with  Celeriac  (Turnip-rooted 
Celery)  or  some  other  crop. 

THINNING  CARROTS.— It  is  essential  to  thin  out 
Carrots  when  they  are  2  or  3  in.  high,  otherwise  they 
would  choke  each  other  in  time.  The  weakest  seedlings 
are  pulled  up  by  hand,  and  about  3  in.  of  space 
is  left  between  the  first  crops  in  frames,  and  one  or 
two  inches  more  between  the  out-door  crops. 


The  Cauliflower  (Brassica  oleracea  Botrytis  cauli- 
flora)  is  an  important  and  often  a  lucrative  crop  to 
the  intensive  cultivator.  Amongst  the  Cauliflowers 
proper  (as  distinguished  from  the  hardier  white-headed 
Broccoli)  three  sections  are  generally  recognised,  viz. 
the  tender,  the  half-hardy,  and  the  hardy — the  varieties 
of  which  follow  each  other  in  natural  succession. 
They  may  also  be  described  as  "  early/'  "  second 


early "  or  "  mid-season,"  and  "  late/'  From  the 
intensive  cultivator's  point  of  view  the  tender  and 
half-hardy  varieties  are  most  valuable,  as  they  come 
to  maturity  at  a  season  when  prices  are  generally 
high,  and  when  the  produce  itself  is  most  appreciated. 

EARLY    CROPS    or    "  PRIMEURS." — Amongst    the 
"  tender "    Cauliflowers    the    following    varieties    are 
considered     best     for 
"  primeurs  "   or  early 
crops,  viz.  : 

1.  Express,    con- 
sidered   to    be     the 
earliest  Cauliflower  of 
all,  with  short  stems. 

2.  D  w  ar  f  Ear  ly 
Erfurt     (nain    hdtif 
d' Erfurt),  a  very  early 
variety  well  suited  for 
frame  culture  (fig.  28). 

3.  Early  Paris  (tendre 

de  Paris  or  Petit  Salomon),  a  good  variety  for  spring 

4.  Early    Snowball     (Boule    de   neige),   one    of   the 
best  for  frames,  especially  in  favoured  localities. 

SECOND  EARLY  CROPS. — The  varieties  of  Cauliflower 
best  suited  to  follow  the  above  are — 

1.  Lenormand,  short-stalked,  a  fine  summer  Cauli- 
flower highly  favoured  by  Parisian  market-gardeners. 
It   has   a  very  short  stem,  large  firm  head  of  great 
purity,  and  keeps  a  long  time  (fig.  29). 

2.  Second  Early  Paris  (Demi-dur  de  Paris,  or  Gros 
Salomon).     This  variety  is  highly  esteemed  for  spring 



and  early  summer  crops,  on  account  of  its  large 
beautiful  white  heads  (fig.  30). 

LATE  OR  OPEN-AIR  CROPS. — There  are  several 
varieties  adapted  for  this  purpose,  being  characterised 
by  their  large  leaves,  sturdy  stems,  and  large  heads 
produced  late  in  the  summer  or  during  autumn. 
Amongst  the  best-known  kinds  are— 

i.  Autumn  Giant,   with  very  large   firm  heads.     If 


sown  iii  February  or  March  it  comes  into  use  in  October 
and  November. 

2.  Walcheren,    a    well-known    variety    with    large 
white   heads.     It    is   very   hardy    and   is   best   sown 
about  April  to  produce  heads  in  autumn  and  winter. 

3.  Early   London  or  Early   Dutch,   a  hardy  variety 
much  grown  in  Holland,  but  well  adapted  for  English 
gardens.      The  heads  are  not  particularly  large,   but 
they  are  hard  and  firm 


ist  and  before  September  20,  seeds  of  early  kinds 
like  "Express,"  "Dwarf  Early  Erfurt,"  "Early 
Snowball  "  or  "  Early  Paris  "  should  be  sown  on  an 
old  hot-bed,  or  even  on  open  ground  that  has  been 
deeply  dug  and  levelled,  and  afterwards  covered  with 
a  good  layer  of  rich  gritty  mould.  Seeds  may  also 


be  sown  at  the  same  period,  if  the  weather  is  un- 
favourable, under  cloches  or  lights.  In  all  cases  the 
seeds  should  be  lightly  covered  with  gritty  soil,  and 
the  seed-bed  should  be  gently  beaten  down  with  the 
back  of  the  spade  or  a  piece  of  flat  board,  afterwards 
giving  it  a  gentle  watering  through  a  fine-rosed  can  ; 
and  the  seed-bed  must  be  kept  in  a  moist  condition 
afterwards — otherwise  the  germinating  seeds  may 
suffer  considerably. 


When  the  seeds  are  sown  under  cloches  or  lights, 
air  must  be  given  more  or  less  freely,  according  to 
the  state  of  the  weather,  when  the  young  plants  are 
well  through  the  soil.  This  will  keep  them  strong 
and  sturdy,  otherwise  they  are  apt  to  become  weak 
and  lanky. 

Pricking  out  and  Transplanting. — When  the  seedlings 
have  made  two  leaves  beyond  the  seed-leaves  or 
cotyledons,  they  are  ready  for  pricking  out.  This 
is  done  under  lights  or  cloches,  under  which  they  are 
kept  until  ready  for  the  final  planting. 

Some  growers  transfer  the  young  Cauliflowers 
direct  from  the  seed-bed  to  the  ground  on  which 
the  plants  are  to  mature,  and  do  not  go  to  the  trouble 
of  moving  them  twice.  But  in  this  case  they  sow  the 
seeds  thinly,  so  that  the  young  plants  may  not  be 
too  close,  and  may  thus  remain  longer  in  the  seed-bed 
if  necessary. 

Having  marked  out  as  much  ground  as  is  necessary, 
it  is  dug  and  prepared  for  the  reception  of  the  frames, 
which  are  to  slope  towards  the  south.  The  interior 
is  filled  up  within  6  in.  of  the  top  with  fine  rich 
mould  evenly  spread  over  the  surface  and  gently 
trodden  down  for  the  reception  of  the  young  plants. 
These  should  be  well  watered  an  hour  or  two  previous 
to  lifting,  so  as  to  have  a  good  ball  of  soil  to  the  roots. 
They  are  best  taken  up  with  a  spade,  great  care  being 
taken  when  separating  the  plants  to  retain  as  much 
soil  as  possible  round  the  roots  of  each.  The  planting 
is  done  either  with  the  finger  or  a  small  dibber,  taking 
care  to  bury  the  young  plants  up  to  the  seed-leaves, 
as  this  encourages  adventitious  roots  to  spring  from 
the  stems  beneath  the  surface  of  the  soil.  About 


3  to  4  in.  space  is  left  between  each  plant ;  in  other 
words,  from  150  to  220  plants  are  placed  under  each 

The  planting  finished,  a  nice  sprinkling  is  given  over- 
head, and  the  outside  air  is  shut  out  for  a  few  days 
until  the  plants  pick  up  again.  After  this,  air  must 
be  given  on  all  fine  days  by  tilting  the  lights  with  a 
piece  of  wood,  brick,  or  flower-pot — whichever  happens 
to  be  most  convenient. 

Cloches. — When  Cauliflowers  are  pricked  out  under 
cloches,  raised  sloping  beds  (see  fig.  i)  wide  enough 
to  accommodate  three  rows  of  glasses,  are  prepared 
and  covered  with  fine  rich  mould.  An  impression  of 
the  cloches  having  been  made  on  the  surface  by 
pressing  down  in  the  required  spots,  nineteen  plants 
are  usually  placed  under  each  one.  The  treatment 
is  then  the  same  as  under  lights. 

It  sometimes  happens  that  the  young  plants  under 
lights  and  cloches  grow  too  quickly  and  would  very 
soon  stifle  each  other  if  not  moved.  Other  beds  for 
lights  and  cloches  must  then  be  prepared  as  in  the 
first  case.  The  plants  are  carefully  taken  up  and 
transferred  to  these  new  quarters,  but  naturally  at 
a  greater  distance  from  each  other  than  before — so 
that  each  light  holds  only  80  to  140  plants,  and  each 
cloche  about  14  instead  of  19  as  at  first.  This  second 
pricking  out  retards  the  plants,  and  makes  them 
generally  hardier  and  more  sturdy.  It  is  also  con- 
sidered to  make  the  plants  mature  earlier  and  to 
develop  smaller  "  heads." 

Protection. — From  November  onwards  the  young 
Cauliflower  plants  must  be  protected  from  severe 
frosts  by  means  of  mats  spread  over  the  frames  or 


cloches  at  night.  These,  however,  must  be  taken 
off  as  early  as  possible  every  morning,  and  air  must 
be  given  freely  on  all  genial  days.  In  very  severe 
weather,  not  only  are  mats  used,  but  manure  is  also 
heaped  round  the  frames,  and  leaves  or  litter  are 
placed  round  the  cloches. 

When  the  temperature  is  so  low  that  it  is  unsafe 
to  take  off  the  mats,  or  to  give  light  and  air  to  the 
plants,  one  must  be  careful  not  to  uncover  afterwards 
when  the  sun  is  too  bright,  nor  yet  to  give  too  much 
air.  It  is  better  to  avoid  rapid  changes  in  temperature, 
and  to  admit  light  and  air  carefully  after  a  long  period 
of  darkness  and  a  close  atmosphere. 

Final  Planting  of  First  Crop. — Early  in  December 
the  hot-beds  are  made  up,  and  a  layer  about  7  in. 
thick  of  rich  sandy  loam  and  leaf -mould,  or  old  manure 
and  sandy  soil  (three  parts  of  manure  to  one  of  soil), 
is  spread  evenly  over  the  surface. 

Before  taking  the  young  plants  from  the  beds  or 
cloches  in  which  they  were  pricked  out,  they  should 
be  well  watered.  They  are  then  easily  lifted,  each 
one  with  a  nice  ball  of  soil  attached  to  the  roots. 
The  plants  should  be  carefully  examined,  so  that 
only  clean  healthy  ones  shall  be  planted.  "  Blind  " 
plants — that  is,  those  in  which  the  centre  has  been 
destroyed  and  has  come  malformed — and  any  that 
are  too  coarse  in  growth,  besides  those  affected  with 
disease  at  the  base,  are  to  be  discarded.  Six  Cauli- 
flowers are  then  planted  under  each  light,  three  in 
a  row  at  the  top  or  north  side,  and  three  in  a  row 
at  the  bottom  or  south  side.  After  planting,  they 
are  watered  well  and  air  is  excluded  for  two  or  three 
days  until  they  recover  from  the  transplanting. 


Afterwards  air  must  be  given  on  all  favourable  occa- 
sions and  watering  must  be  given  more  and  more 
freely  as  the  plants  increase  in  vigour  and  approach 
maturity.  Later  on,  as  the  leaves  begin  to  touch 
the  glass,  if  the  weather  is  mild  enough  the  frames 
and  lights  are  taken  away  and  placed  over  other 
crops.  If,  owing  to  the  weather,  it  is  risky  to  shift 
the  frames,  they  may  be  lifted  by  placing  blocks  of 
wood  or  bricks  beneath  the  legs  at  the  corners.  In 
this  way  more  head  room  will  be  given  the  plants. 

Early  in  March  the  heads  begin  to  appear.  To  keep 
them  perfectly  white,  as  they  increase  in  size  one  of 
the  large  leaves  near  the  top  is  cracked  at  the  base, 
and  bent  over  the  head.  The  exposure  to  light 
tends  to  make  the  heads  yellowish  in  colour — a  fact 
which  lowers  their  market  value. 

-The  heads  are  fit  to  cut  from  about  March  20 
onwards  and  well  into  April,  those  which  are  just 
at  the  right  stage  being  of  course  cut  before  the  others. 

Early  in  January  another  batch  of  young  Cauli- 
flowers from  the  same  seed-bed  may  be  planted ; 
and  still  another  batch  a  fortnight  later,  in  beds  on 
which  Carrots  and  Radishes  have  been  sown,  and 
upon  which  Cos  and  Cabbage  Lettuces  are  growing. 
Under  favourable  conditions  "  heads "  are  often  fit 
to  cut  about  the  end  of  April  and  during  May. 

Intercropping. — In  December  when  the  young  Cauli- 
flowers— six  in  each  light — are  planted,  there  is  much 
vacant  space.  This  is  often  utilised  for  other  crops, 
such  as  Cabbage  Lettuces  and  Radishes.  Seeds  of 
the  latter  are  sown  and  covered,  and  afterwards  three 
rows  of  Gotte  Lettuce  are  planted  between  the  two 
rows  of  Cauliflowers.  As  the  temperature  of  the 


frames  at  this  period  should  be  between  65°  and  75° 
Fahr.,  the  Radishes  germinate  quickly  and  mature 
long  before  they  interfere  with  the  Lettuces.  The 
latter  also,  being  quicker  in  growth  than  the  Cauli- 
flowers, will  be  fit  to  cut  before  the  Cauliflowers  will 
require  more  space. 

half  of  September  seeds  of  a  variety  like  "  Lenormand  " 
or  "  Second  Early  Paris  "  (Gros  Salomon)  may  be  sown  in 
the  same  way  as  the  first  crops.  When  the  young  plants 
have  developed  two  leaves  beyond  the  seed-leaves, 
they  are  pricked  out  under  lights,  and  grown  on  until 
large  enough  for  the  final  transplanting  in  due  course. 
This  may  take  place  in  frames  specially  set  apart  for 
Cauliflowers,  in  which  case  Lettuces  may  be  planted 
between,  after  another  sowing  of  Radishes  has  been 
made  in  the  way  already  mentioned.  Or  the  young 
Cauliflowers  may  be  planted  amongst  the  Carrots  in 
other  frames,  placing  three  plants  on  the  north  side  and 
three  on  the  south  side  in  each  frame — with  the  Carrots 
in  the  centre. 

Cauliflowers  may  also  be  planted  in  the  spaces 
between  the  cloches  that  are  sheltering  Cos  and 
Cabbage  Lettuces,  as  shown  at  p.  153  in  the  diagram 

(%.  4i). 

Between  the  beginning  of  February  and  the  middle 
of  March,  other  batches  of  Cauliflowers  from  the 
autumn  sowings  may  be  planted  on  warm  sunny 
beds  or  borders,  upon  which  Carrots  and  Radishes 
have  previously  been  sown.  The  Cauliflowers  should 
be  placed  about  2\  ft.  apart  in  rows  3  ft.  apart,  and 
should  be  "  angled  " — that  is,  so  as  not  to  be  opposite 
each  other  in  the  rows.  At  the  same  time  a  Cos 


(Romaine)  Lettuce  may  be  planted  between  each 
Cauliflower,  and  Cos  Lettuces  may  also  be  planted 
between  the  rows.  The  margins  of  the  beds  or  borders 
may  then  be  planted  with  Cabbage  Lettuces  as  shown 
in  the  annexed  diagram,  in  which  a  *  represents 
Cauliflowers,  an  o  Cos  Lettuces,  and  an  x  Cabbage 




































SUCCESSION  CROPS. — Seeds  of  the  second-season 
varieties  may  be  sown  in  February  and  March  under 
similar  conditions,  or  seedlings  from  the  September 
sowing  may  be  held  over  somewhat  later  than  those 
that  are  to  produce  the  second  crop.  The  plants  will 
be  ready  for  planting  in  their  final  quarters  in  March 
or  in  April,  when  there  is  no  longer  need  for  artificial 
heat.  Old  beds  may  be  used  for  these  crops,  or  the 
young  Cauliflowers  (which  should  have  been  gradually 
hardened  off  in  the  frames)  may  be  planted  out  on 
the  warm,  sheltered  borders  on  which  Cos  and  Cabbage 
Lettuces  may  have  been  already  planted  some  time 
previously.  These  Cauliflowers  will  be  ready  at  the 
end  of  May  and  during  June  and  July. 

If  another  sowing  is  made  about  the  end  of  April  or 
early  in  May  of  the  same  varieties — "  Lenormand  "  and 
"Second  Early  Paris"  (Gros  Salomon) — the  young 
plants  will  be  ready  for  the  open  ground  early  in  June. 
The  soil  in  which  they  are  placed,  about  2  ft.  apart  every 



way,  should  have  been  deeply  dug  and  well  enriched 
with  manure  in  advance,  if  it  is  not  already  an  old 
hot-bed.  The  plants  must  be  kept  watered  well,  and 
during  August  and  September  ought  to  yield  fine 
heads.  When  first  planted  out  in  June,  the  ground 
between  the  Cauliflowers  may  be  utilised  for  Cos  or 
Cabbage  Lettuces. 

LATE  CAULIFLOWERS. — To  secure  the  latest  Cauli- 
flowers, seeds  of  "  Autumn  Giant/'  "  Walcheren,"  or 
"  Early  London "  may  be  sown  at  intervals  from 
February  and  March  to  May  or  June  in  an  old  hot-bed 
or  on  a  somewhat  sheltered  border.  The  last  of  the 
young  plants,  after  pricking  out  in  the  usual  way — or 
even  transferring  direct  from  the  seed-bed — will  be 
ready  for  final  planting  about  July.  They  must  be 
constantly  watered  to  keep  them  growing  steadily  with 
soft  and  tender  tissues.  According  to  the  period  of 
sowing  and  the  variety,  the  heads  will  come  into  use 
from  August  to  October  and  November. 

Late  Cauliflowers  may  be  intercropped  much  in 
the  same  way  as  those  preceding  them.  Fine-  and 
broad-leaved  Endives,  Radishes,  Spinach,  or  Corn 
Salad  are  recommended  as  suitable  for  the  purpose. 

Covering  the  Heads. — This  is  essential  in  open-air 
crops.  When  the  heads  are  forming  up  nicely,  one 
or  two  large  healthy  leaves  may  be  cracked  low  down, 
and  then  bent  over  them  to  protect  them  from  the 
sun.  These  coverings  should  be  examined  each  day 
in  case  caterpillars  attack  the  heads,  and  in  showery 
weather  a  watch  must  be  kept  for  slugs.  Indeed,  from 
start  to  finish  Cauliflowers  are  beset  by  many  insect 
foes,  one  of  the  worst  being  the  Turnip  Beetle  (Haltica 
nemorum).  By  frequently  watering  the  plants,  how- 


ever,  it  may  be  kept  in  check.  During  early  growth, 
if  the  plants  are  syringed  occasionally  with  a  little 
weak  paraffin  emulsion,  the  foliage  will  be  rendered 
noxious  to  the  various  pests.  About  an  egg-cupful  of 
paraffin  to  three  or  four  gallons  of  warm  water,  well 
mixed  up  with  a  little  soft  soap,  will  make  a  good 
solution.  It  should  be  applied  in  a  fine  spray  morning 
or  evening. 


The  Celery  (Apium  graveolens)  is  a  native  biennial 
plant  that  has  become  of  great  garden  value  by  selection 
and  cultivation  for  centuries,  and  as  a  salad  the  leaf- 
stalks are  highly  esteemed.  For  intensive  cultivation 
French  gardeners  favour  a  variety  called  "  Chemin  " 
or  "  Plein  blanc  dore,"  and  known  to  us  as  "  Paris 
Golden/'  This  has  leaves  and  stems  of  a  golden- 
yellow  colour,  and  matures  quickly.  It  is,  however, 
somewhat  susceptible  to  frosts,  and  therefore  is  more 
valued  for  early  crops.  Other  forms  of  this  Celery 
are  known  as  "  Plein  blanc  d'Amerique,"  or  "  White 
Plume/'  and  "  Plein  blanc  a  cotes  roses,"  or  "  Pink 
Plume/'  both  of  which  are  also  much  grown  in 
France  for  early  crops,  owing  to  the  fact  that  the 
stems  blanch  readily  without  being  "  earthed  up  " 
very  much. 

From  the  end  of  January  until  about  the  middle  of 
March  seeds  of  the  varieties  mentioned  may  be  sown 
on  hot-beds  having  a  temperature  of  60°  to  70°  Fahr. 
To  encourage  rapid  germination,  frequent  sprinklings 
are  given,  and  when  the  young  plants  appear  as  much 
air  as  possible  is  given  in  accordance  with  the  state 


of  the  weather,  so  that  the  plants  may  become  sturdy. 
If  the  seedlings  (from  seeds  sown  in  January)  are  too 
close  together,  they  may  be  either  "  thinned  out  "  or 
"  pricked  out,"  3  to  4  in.  apart,  on  an  old  hot-bed, 
when  four  or  five  leaves  have  developed.  Seedlings 
from  later  growings  in  February  and  March  may  be 
pricked  out  when  large  enough  in  cold  frames,  under 
cloches,  or  even  on  warm  south  borders. 

In  April,  when  the  earlier  crops  of  Turnips,  Carrots, 
Radishes,  etc.,  have  been  taken  from  the  frames,  the 
young  Celery  plants  may  take  their  places.  They 
will  then  be  about  5  or  6  in.  high.  The  plants  are 
placed  opposite  each  other,  and  not  "  angled,"  about 
I  ft.  apart  in  rows  a  similar  distance  from  each 
other.  After  planting,  the  soil  should  be  well  watered 
to  settle  it  about  the  roots,  and  a  little  litter  or  dry 
manure  may  be  spread  over  the  surface  of  a  soil  likely 
to  dry  rapidly.  During  growth  attention  must  be 
paid  to  weeding  and  hoeing,  and  plenty  of  water  must 
be  given  as  the  weather  becomes  warmer  and  growth 
more  vigorous.  As  soon  as  the  plants  are  about 
1 8  in.  high,  they  are  ready  for  "  blanching."  If, 
however,  the  stems  are  more  or  less  spreading,  they 
should  be  tied  together  in  one  or  two  places,  taking 
care,  however,  not  to  tie  the  tops  too  tightly,  or  the 
centres  may  be  crippled  and  prevented  from  developing 
further.  Plants  from  the  earlier  sowings  will  be  ready 
for  cutting  about  the  end  of  July  and  during  August ; 
while  later  sowings  in  April  and  May  will  produce  plants 
for  succession  in  autumn  and  winter.  The  green- 
stemmed  varieties  of  Celery  (verts)  are  best  for  winter 
use,  owing  to  their  hardiness  ;  while  the  blonds  (sown 
in  May)  are  recommended  for  autumn  use,  as  they  are 

CELERY  117 

easily  blanched  simply  by  spreading  mats  over  them 
when  nearly  fully  developed. 

Blanching  Celery. — This  operation  has  the  effect  of 
excluding  the  light  from  the  stems,  which  are  thus 
rendered  sweeter  and  more  tender  by  the  absence  or 
non-development  of  the  green  colouring  matter  called 
chlorophyll.  Different  methods  of  blanching  are 
adopted,  but  as  the  main  object  is  the  same  in  all 
cases,  they  differ  only  in  details. 

To  blanch  the  earliest  crops  of  Celery,  dry  leaves, 
straw,  moss,  or  clean  litter  is  placed  between  the 
plants  where  they  are  growing.  A  slender,  wooden 
frame  is  slid  in  between  the  rows  of  Celery  first  of  all 
so  as  to  keep  the  leaves  up  and  close  together.  The 
light-excluding  material  is  worked  in  between  the  rows 
until  about  two-thirds  of  the  stems  are  hidden.  The 
frame  is  then  withdrawn  and  placed  between  other 
rows  that  are  to  be  treated  in  a  similar  manner.  About 
fifteen  days  after  this  operation  the  Celery  stems  will 
be  sufficiently  blanched  ;  in  addition,  mats  are  often 
thrown  over  the  tops  of  the  plants  at  the  same  time 
to  hasten  the  process. 

Some  growers,  instead  of  placing  straw  or  litter 
between  the  rows  in  the  way  described,  make  bands 
of  the  straw  and  then  twist  them  round  the  Celery 
stalks  from  the  base  upwards  for  two-thirds  of  their 
length.  This  is  an  economical  but  less  expeditious 
method  of  blanching.  Other  growers,  again,  use  a 
kind  of  earthenware  pipe  15  to  16  in.  long,  and  about 
6  in.  wide  at  the  base,  tapering  to  about  4  in.  at 
the  top.  The  Celery  stems  are  brought  together  by 
twisting  a  piece  of  string  round  them  spirally  from 
the  bottom  upwards ;  a  pipe  is  then  placed  over 



each  plant  tied  up  thus,  and  the  string  is  carefully 
unwound  by  pulling  it  through  the  upper  hole  in 
the  pipe. 

Another  method  of  blanching  Celery  is  adopted  for 
the  second  or  autumn  crops  as  follows.  A  trench, 
3  or  4  ft.  wide,  is  dug  out  12  to  15  in.  deep,  and 
of  any  required  length,  the  soil  being  thrown  up  on 
both  sides  of  the  trench.  The  bottom  is  then  broken 
up  to  ensure  better  drainage.  The  Celery  plants  are 
taken  up,  each  with  a  ball  of  soil  adhering  to  the  roots. 
Each  plant  is  "  picked  over  " — that  is,  any  dead  or 
yellow  leaves  or  basal  suckers  are  detached,  and  the 
stems  are  fastened  with  one  or  two  raffia  or  rye-grass 
ties,  to  prevent  the  soil  getting  into  the  crowns  or 
hearts  of  the  plants.  The  latter  are  then  planted  in 
the  trench  about  6  in.  apart,  in  rows  8  to  10  in. 
wide,  the  ball  of  soil  being  just  covered  over.  After 
planting,  a  good  watering  is  given  to  settle  the  soil, 
and  if  the  weather  is  dry  the  watering  is  renewed  a 
few  times'  so  as  to  encourage  the  plants  to  become 
established  quickly  in  their  new  quarters,  which 
generally  takes  a  week  or  ten  days  according  to  cir- 

The  blanching,  or  "  earthing  up,"  is  then  done 
either  in  one  operation  or  in  two.  If  the  former,  the 
Celery  stems  are  certainly  whiter  but  not  so  firm  and 
crisp  as  when  the  work  is  done  on  two  separate  oc- 
casions ;  and  the  latter  is  recommended.  The  finely 
prepared  soil  is  worked  in  between  the  rows  of  plants 
in  the  trenches,  and  the  operation  is  facilitated  by 
using  a  frame  to  hold  the  leaves  up  as  described  for 
blanching  the  early  crops.  About  6  in.  of  soil  is 
worked  in  between  the  plants  on  the  first  occasion, 

CELERY  119 

and  about  a  fortnight  afterwards  the  operation  is 
again  performed.  This  time,  however,  the  space 
between  the  rows  is  filled  up  with  soil  so  that  the 
stems  are  completely  buried  except  for  the  leaves 
at  the  top.  These  stick  out  5  or  6  in.  above  the 
soil,  and  as  long  as  growth  continues  they  carry  on 
the  work  of  assimilation.  When  danger  from  frost 
is  feared  the  plants  are  covered  with  straw  or  litter, 
or  mats,  for  protection  at  night,  taking  care,  however, 
to  uncover  them  as  early  as  possible  in  the  morning. 
About  three  or  four  weeks  after  the  final  earthing  up 
the  Celery  will  be  fit  for  use,  and  will  keep  in  good 
condition  in  the  trenches  until  the  end  of  February. 

A  third  method  of  blanching  Celery  where  it  is  grown 
is  practised  in  the  neighbourhoods  of  Meaux  and 
Viroflay.  Celery  is  planted  in  every  other  bed,  and 
in  the  intervening  spaces  crops  of  Lettuces,  Endive, 
Chicory,  or  some  other  vegetable  are  grown  during 
the  summer  months.  They  must,  however,  be  taken 
off  the  ground  by  September,  as  the  soil  on  which  they 
have  been  growing  will  then  be  required  to  "  earth  up  " 
the  Celery  on  each  side.  The  work  is  best  done  on 
two  occasions,  with  an  interval  of  about  a  fortnight 
between  ;  the  stems  are  then  firmer  and  of  a  better 
flavour  than  if  earthed  up  completely  at  one  operation. 

The  English  method  of  growing  Celery  is  also 
adopted  in  some  places.  Trenches  about  a  yard  wide 
and  6  to  12  in.  deep  are  prepared.  In  May  or  June 
two  rows  of  Celery  are  planted  in  each  trench.  In 
due  course  the  plants  are  "  earthed  up  "  by  having 
the  soil  from  the  sides  of  the  trench  brought  up  to 
the  stems  in  the  course  of  two  or  three  different  opera- 
tions. If  necessary  the  stems  are  tied  up,  and  any 


dead  or  yellow  leaves  are  picked  off  the  plants  before 
the  work  begins. 

Diseases. — The  worst  disease  of  Celery  is  caused  by 
the  Celery  Fly  (Tephritis  Onopordinis),  the  maggots  of 
which  enter  the  tissues  of  the  leaves  and  destroy  them, 
causing  unsightly  blotches.  The  best  way  to  check 
the  pest  is  to  syringe  the  healthy  young  plants  fre- 
quently with  the  paraffin  emulsion  wash  mentioned 
above  under  Cauliflowers  (see  p.  115). 


Celeriac    (Apium   graveolens   rapacea)    is   known   in 
French  gardens  as  "  Celeri  rave  "  (fig.  31),  and  differs 

from  the  ordinary 
Celery  in  having 
swollen  stems. 
These  are  cut  up  into 
slices  and  used  in 
salads,  and  for 
flavouring  soups,  etc. 
For  early  crops  seeds 
are  sown  at  the  end 
of  February  or  early 
in  March.  The 
young  plants  will  be 
ready  for  pricking 
out  in  April,  either 
on  an  old  hot-bed 
or  on  a  warm  south  border,  allowing  3  or  4  in. 
between  them  every  way.  Three  or  four  weeks 
later,  the  young  Celeriacs  may  be  pricked  out  again 
in  similar  situations,  this  time  about  6  in.  apart. 



Final  planting  takes  place  about  the  end  of  May,  in 
the  open  air  or  in  open  beds,  the  plants  being  12  to 
14  in.  apart  and  "  angled  "  (i.e.  planted  quincuncially) 
in  the  rows.  Sometimes  they  are  grown  between 
Lettuces  or  Cauliflowers,  but  this  is  not  advisable.  A 
succession  may  be  kept  up  by  making  a  second  sowing 
in  May,  and  planting  out  in  due  course  after  the 
seedlings  have  been  pricked  out  twice,  as  already 

During  growth  weeds  should  be  kept  down  by  the 
hoe,  and  when  the  plants  are  about  half-grown  copious 
waterings  may  be  given,  especially  during  dry  seasons. 

To  hasten  the  swelling  of  the  stem  in  autumn,  the 
lower  leaves  are  removed  as  soon  as  they  begin  to  look 
yellowish.  When  mature,  the  swollen  stems — freed 
from  leaves  and  roots — may  be  stored  in  dry,  airy 
cellars,  etc.,  where  they  will  be  free  from  frost. 

Celeriac  is  now  becoming  better  known  in  England, 
and  it  deserves  attention  on  the  part  of  market  growers. 


Under  these  names,  plants  of  Cichorium  Intybus  are 
largely  grown  for  salading.  To  raise  the  plants,  seeds 
may  be  sown  in  shallow  drills  in  the  open  air  in  March 
or  April,  and  if  the  green  leaves  only  are  used  for 
salads,  the  seedlings  need  not  be  thinned  out.  The 
leaves  are  cut  off  close  to  the  ground  several  times 
during  the  year  when  required. 

When  "  Barbe  de  Capucin  "  is  wanted,  seeds  are 
sown  in  the  same  way  and  at  the  same  time.  The 
seedlings,  however,  are  thinned  out  about  6  in.  apart. 



About  October  the  long  thick  roots  are  taken  up,  and 
are  placed  in  close  dark  cellars  or  frames,  with  a  little 
soil  over  them.  Market  growers  place  the  roots  up- 
right on  a  hot-bed  side  by  side,  after  clearing  off  the 
old  leaves.  They  are  covered  with  about  a  foot  of 
gritty  soil.  In  about  three  weeks'  time,  long  narrow 
leaves,  10  to  12  in.  long,  are  produced  in  the  dark, 
and,  being  beautifully  blanched,  form 
an  excellent  salad.  When  leaves 
cease  to  develop,  the  roots  are  taken 
out,  and  replaced  with  fresh  ones 
from  time  to  time  during  the  winter 
months.  The  soil  is  watered  occa- 
sionally if  inclined  to  be  dry. 

Another  form  of  Chicory  is  that 
known  as  "  Witloof  "  (i.e.  white  leaf) 
or  "Brussels  Chicory"  (fig.  32).  It 
has  thicker  roots,  and  larger  and 
wider  leaves  than  the  Barbe  de 
Capucin.  The  roots  are  lifted  about 
the  end  of  October,  and  onwards 
during  the  winter,  in  the  way  already 
described.  The  old  leaves  are  taken 
off,  and  trimmed  within  ij  in.  of 
the  top  of  the  root,  and  any  side 
roots  are  also  suppressed.  The  main  roots  are  then 
shortened  to  8  or  10  in.  in  length.  A  trench,  about 
18  in.  deep  and  4  ft.  or  more  wide,  is  then  made, 
and  afterwards  filled  up  with  light,  rich,  gritty  soil. 
In  this  the  roots  are  planted,  so  that  the  crowns  are 
about  8  or  10  in.  below  the  surface.  To  secure  quick 
growth,  about  i  ft.  of  hot  manure  is  then  spread  over 
the  bed,  and  about  a  month  afterwards  beautiful  pale 

FIG.  32. — WITLOOF 



yellowish  heads  of  excellent  flavour  are  produced. 
The  heads  are  gathered  before  the  tips  reach  the 
manure — when  within  i  in.  or  so  from  it,  in  fact — 
otherwise  they  would  become  discoloured  and  spoiled. 
A  little  raffia  may  be  tied  round  the  tops  to  keep  the 
blanched  leaves  together.  Witloof  is  eaten  in  a  raw 
or  cooked  state. 


This  native  annual  (V alerianella  olitoria)  is  becoming 
more  and  more  highly  esteemed  as  a  salad  in  England 
each  year,  but  it  has  long  been  common  in  France. 


The  Round-leaved  variety  ("  Ronde  ")  is  the  one  most 
highly  favoured  by  the  Parisian  market-gardeners 
(ng-  33) »  but  there  are  several  others,  perhaps  the  best 
being  the  large-leaved  Italian  Corn  Salad,  or  Regence. 
About  the  end  of  July  or  early  in  August  seeds 
for  the  first  crop  are  sown  "  broadcast,"  and  then  at 


intervals  of  three  or  four  weeks  until  the  end  of  October 
at  the  rate  of  about  3  or  4  oz.  to  120  square  yards. 
Before  sowing,  of  course,  the  ground  is  lightly  dug, 
trodden  down  again,  and  nicely  levelled.  After  the 
seeds  are  sown,  the  surface  is  raked  over,  and  some 
growers  also  add  a  light  sprinkling  of  finely  sifted 
mould.  If  the  weather  is  very  dry,  a  good  watering 
will  hasten  germination,  and  is  indeed  essential  to 
avoid  failure  altogether. 

Many  growers  sow  seeds  of  Chervil  or  Radishes  at 
the  same  time  as  the  Corn  Salad,  as  one  does  not 
interfere  with  the  other.  Others,  again,  sow  Corn 
Salad  among  such  crops  as  Chicory,  Endive,  Cauli- 
flowers, and  Cabbages. 

By  sowing  the  Italian  Corn  Salad,  or  Regence,  in 
October,  either  by  itself  or  with  the  Round-leaved, 
a  good  succession  will  be  kept  up  during  the  winter 
months,  if  mild. 


The  long- fruited  green  Cucumbers  (Cucumis  sativus) , 
as  seen  in  England,  are  cultivated  also  by  the  Parisian 
market-gardeners,  and  much  in  the  same  way  as  in 
our  glass-houses.  In  addition  to  these,  however, 
"  White  "  Cucumbers  and  small  Prickly  Cucumbers, 
or  "  Cornichons,"  are  more  or  less  extensively  grown. 

The  first  early  crops  of  long- fruited  Cucumbers  can 
only  be  brought  to  perfection  under  glass  during  the 
early  months  of  the  year,  and  although  they  may 
realise  a  good  price,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  a 
great  deal  of  the  profit  is  eaten  up  by  the  high  price 
of  the  coke  or  coal  used  in  heating  the  boilers. 


Frame  Culture. — In  the  first  half  of  February,  and 
again  a  month  later  in  the  first  half  of  March, 
Cucumber  seeds  may  be  sown  on  a  gentle  hot-bed, 
with  a  temperature  of  60°  to  65°  Fahr.,  placing  the 
seeds  either  in  rows  in  the  soil  covering  the  bed,  or 
in  pots,  or  "  pockets  "  (i.e.  small  holes  made  in  the 
surface).  A  gentle  watering  is  given,  air  is  excluded, 
and  mats  are  put  on  the  lights  at  night  for  protection. 

About  ten  or  twelve  days  after  sowing,  when  the 
seed  leaves  and  first  true  leaves  are  well  developed, 
the  young  Cucumber  plants  will  be  ready  for  moving 
into  another  bed  with  a  similar  temperature,  allowing 
about  3  in.  between  each.  The  plants  are  sprinkled 
overhead,  as  before,  with  tepid  water,  no  air  is  given 
for  a  few  days,  and  shading  is  given  from  the  sun. 
In  a  few  days  growth  recommences,  and  the  lights  are 
tilted  a  little  more  and  more  each  day,  so  that  the  air 
may  harden  the  young  plants  and  keep  them  sturdy. 
Towards  evening,  of  course,  "  air  is  taken  off " — that 
is,  the  lights  are  closed,  and  mats  are  spread  over 
them  in  case  of  frost. 

While  the  pricked- out  plants  are  growing  on,  another 
hot-bed,  18  in.  or  2  ft.  thick,  should  be  prepared  for 
those  that  are  fit  for  moving  about  the  second  week 
in  March.  From  6  to  8  in.  of  rich  mould  is  spread 
over  the  surface  of  the  bed,  and  when  the  rank  steam 
has  passed  away,  and  the  heat  has  subsided  to  about 
70°  or  65°  Fahr.,  the  bed  will  be  ready  for  planting. 
Each  little  Cucumber  is  then  carefully  lifted,  with  a 
ball  of  soil  adhering  to  the  roots,  and  by  means  of  a 
trowel,  or  even  by  hand,  it  is  planted  in  the  new  frame 
up  to  the  seed-leaves.  Four  Cucumbers  are  placed 
under  each  light,  and  when  planting  is  finished  tepid 


water  is  sprinkled  over  the  plants  before  closing  up 
the  lights.  No  air  is  given  for  two  or  three  days,  so 
as  to  encourage  the  plants  to  "  pick  up  "  again  quickly, 
and  strong  sunlight  is  also  excluded  for  a  few  days 
for  the  same  reason.  Nor  must  covering  up  with  mats 
at  night  be  forgotten.  Once  growth  has  started,  air 
is  given  on  all  fine  days,  and  a  sprinkling  with  tepid 
water  is  given  in  the  morning  and  afternoon  to  en- 
courage active  growth. 

When  four  or  five  leaves  are  borne  on  the  main  stem, 
the  latter  is  pinched  off  i  or  2  in.  above  the  second 
leaf.  This  will  cause  two  side  branches  to  develop 
in  due  course.  Before  this  takes  place,  however,  a 
layer  of  straw  or  clean  litter  is  spread  over  the  surface 
of  the  bed.  When  the  side  branches  are  about  i  ft. 
long,  these  are  also  shortened  back  a  little,  in  front 
of  the  second  or  third  leaf.  A  third  set  of  shoots  will 
then  commence  to  develop  from  these,  and  when  they 
are  about  i  ft.  long,  they  must  also  be  shortened  back 
to  the  second  or  third  leaf  in  the  same  way. 

As  soon  as  the  young  fruits  have  commenced  to 
swell,  the  best  and  most  shapely  one  is  selected,  and 
the  shoot  carrying  it  is  pinched  or  shortened  back  to 
two  leaves  beyond  the  fruits.  All  others  are  sup 
pressed.  When  this  first  fruit  has  grown  about  two- 
thirds  of  its  natural  size,  a  second  fruit  is  chosen  in 
the  same  way  as  the  first,  and  when  this  attains 
two-thirds  of  its  growth  a  third  fruit  is  selected  to 
keep  up  the  succession  ;  and  so  on  with  other  fruits, 
so  that  each  plant  may  develop  a  dozen  or  more  one 
after  the  other.  All  long  shoots  are  then  pinched 
back  from  time  to  time. 

Watering,  of  course,  must  be  attended  to  each  day 


if  necessary,  taking  care  to  use  water  having  the  same 
temperature  as  that  in  the  frame.  If  very  cold  water 
is  used,  the  plants  are  likely  to  be  chilled  and  stopped 
in  growth.  Air  is  given  by  "  tilting  "  the  frames  on 
all  fine  days  until  the  afternoon,  when  the  lights  should 
be  closed  to  keep  in  the  warmth  during  the  night. 

Cucumbers  grown  in  this  way,  from  seeds  sown  in 
February,  are  fit  for  cutting  in  April ;  in  May  and 
June  from  seeds  sown  a  month  or  so  later. 

Cucumbers  under  Cloches. — Seeds  may  be  sown  in 
the  first  half  of  April  in  gentle  hot-beds  in  the  way 
already  described,  afterwards  placing  the  young 
plants  out  in  frames,  and  keeping  them  close  and 
shaded  for  two  or  three  days,  until  they  start  again 
into  growth.  Towards  the  end  of  April  trenches  and 
holes,  each  about  2  ft.  wide,  i  ft.  deep,  and  about 
2^  ft.  apart,  are  made  in  a  straight  line  on  a  warm 
sheltered  border.  These  holes  or  trenches  are  filled 
with  good  manure  to  make  a  little  hot-bed  about 
1 8  in.  deep.  The  soil  taken  out  is  then  spread  over 
the  heaps  of  manure  in  a  layer  about  8  in.  thick,  and 
a  basin  is  made  on  top  of  each  to  accommodate  a  few 
handfuls  of  rich  mould.  When  the  rank  heat  has 
subsided,  a  young  Cucumber  plant  is  placed  in  the 
centre  of  each  heap  up  to  the  seed-leaves,  taking  care 
beforehand  to  lift  each  plant  with  a  nice  ball  of  soil 
round  the  roots.  The  plants  are  watered  well  to 
settle  the  soil  round  them,  after  which  each  one  is 
covered  with  a  cloche,  the  upper  two-thirds  of  which 
has  been  smeared  with  liquid  whiting,  lime,  or  clay, 
to  serve  as  a  shading  against  the  sun.  For  three  or 
four  days  the  cloches  are  kept  shut  down  on  the  soil, 
to  encourage  new  growth.  After  this,  however,  the 


plants  are  ventilated  on  all  fine  days  by  raising  the 
cloches — one,  two,  or  three  notches  on  the  "  tilts  " 
in  the  way  shown  at  p.  42.  At  night-time  it  may  be 
necessary  to  cover  the  cloches  with  mats  for  protection 
against  frost.  When  the  plants  have  commenced  to 
grow  freely,  the  main  shoot  at  first,  and  the  others 
afterwards,  must  be  pinched  or  shortened  back  in 
the  same  way  as  recommended  for  the  plants  grown 
under  lights  in  frames,  the  only  difference  being  that 
the  shoots  are  left  somewhat  longer.  The  plants  are 
watered  well  when  necessary,  and  the  cloches  are 
taken  off  the  plants  altogether  on  fine  days,  replacing 
them  towards  evening.  In  due  course  the  shoots 
will  extend  beyond  the  circumference  of  the  cloches, 
and  the  latter  may  then  be  placed  on  three  tilts  to 
allow  the  shoots  to  spread  naturally  while  protecting 
the  main  portion  of  the  plant.  As  the  weather  is 
usually  fine  by  the  time  the  plants  reach  this  stage, 
there  is  little  danger  from  frosts,  and  the  first  fruits 
from  Cucumbers  grown  in  this  way  will  be  ready  from 
the  middle  of  June  and  onwards  till  the  end  of  August. 
Open-air  Culture. — Cucumbers  grown  in  the  open 
air  are  generally  raised  from  seeds  sown  in  April  in 
gentle  hot-beds,  afterwards  transplanting  in  the  way 
described  about  the  end  of  May  on  little  hot-beds  for 
each  plant.  Seeds  are  often  sown  in  such  beds  in  May, 
and  the  plants  from  them  are  allowed  to  grow  on 
without  being  disturbed.  In  the  early  stages  it  is 
wise  to  cover  the  plants  with  cloches  until  they  are 
well  established.  While  developing  their  growth,  the 
vacant  soil  between  the  plants  and  along  the  margins 
of  the  beds  may  be  utilised  for  a  "  catch  crop  "  of 
Lettuces  or  Radishes.  "  White-fruited  "  Cucumbers, 


although  practically  unknown  in  British  gardens, 
form  a  marketable  crop  in  Paris.  From  inquiries 
made  in  the  "  Halles,"  as  the  Covent  Garden  of  Paris 
is  called,  I  was  told  that  "  White  "  Cucumbers  were 
not  grown  anything  like  so  extensively  as  the  long 
green-fruited  varieties — although  the  quantity  grown 
found  a  ready  sale.  The  fruits  are  somewhat  similar 
in  shape  to  the  green  ones,  and  at  first  are  of  the  same 
colour.  In  the  course  of  time,  however,  they  pass 
from  green  to  greenish-yellow,  and  ultimately  to  a 
kind  of  waxy  or  creamy  white. 

The  raising,  planting,  and  general  cultivation  is 
precisely  the  same  as  already  described  for  the  green 

green  Cucumbers  chiefly  used  in  pickles  in  England 
are  extensively  grown  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris, 
and  large  quantities  of  them  may  be  seen  in  the 
Paris  markets  during  the  summer  months.  These 
little  Cucumbers  must  not  be  confounded  with  the 
small  stunted  fruits  of  the  ordinary  long  green  Cu- 
cumber. They  are  obtained  from  a  special  variety 
called  "  Cornichon  vert  petit  de  Paris."  This  is  strong 
and  hardy,  and  easily  grown.  The  seeds  are  generally 
sown  in  gentle  hot-beds  early  in  May.  In  due  course 
the  young  plants  are  pricked  out  in  frames,  and  by 
the  end  of  May  or  early  in  June  they  are  again  lifted 
with  a  nice  ball  of  soil,  and  planted  in  little  heaps 
of  soil  in  the  same  way  as  Cucumbers.  The  shoots 
must  be  pinched  to  the  third  or  fourth  leaf,  and  when 
the  branches  are  well  developed  a  layer  of  straw  or 
litter  is  placed  on  the  soil  for  them  to  ramble  over. 
The  first  fruits  are  ready  by  the  middle  or  end  of 



July,  and  may  be  picked  every  two  or  three  days 
until  the  crop  is  finished.  The  fruits  are  usually  fit 
to  gather  about  a  week  or  ten  days  after  the  flowers 
have  set  well. 

Insect  Pests,  etc. — Cucumbers  grown  in  frames,  under 
cloches,  and  in  the  open  air  are  not  so  subject  to 
attacks  of  insect  pests  and  fungoid  diseases  as  those 
grown  in  hot-houses.  At  the  same  time  a  watch  must 
be  kept  at  all  times  for  slugs,  who  are  very  fond  of 
them,  and  can  only  be  kept  in  check  by  sprinkling 
a  little  lime  and  soot  on  the  soil,  and  also  by  severing 
the  bodies  with  a  knife  blade  whenever  they  are  seen. 
"  Red  spider  "  is  a  well-known  Cucumber  pest  causing 
the  under-surface  of  the  leaves  to  assume  a  rusty 
appearance.  As  a  dry  atmosphere  is  the  chief  cause 
of  "  red  spider,"  the  natural  remedy  is  to  keep  the 
surroundings  fairly  moist  by  watering  and  syringing 
as  frequently  as  the  growth  of  the  plant  and  the 
weather  necessitates.  The  "  eel- worms  "  which  are  such 
a  terrible  pest  in  hot-houses,  where  they  attack  the 
roots  of  the  Cucumbers,  are  not  so  prevalent  in  frames 
or  the  open  air.  When  they  appear,  the  plants  are 
rendered  useless  and  crops  should  not  be  grown  in  the 
same  soil  or  in  the  same  place  a  second  time.  The 
old  soil  also  should  be  burned  before  using  for  other 


This  well-known  plant  (Taraxacum  Dens-Leonis)  is 
usually  treated  with  scant  respect  in  the  British 
Islands,  although  a  few  sensible  market-gardeners  are 
well  aware  of  its  value  as  a  salad  plant.  The  market- 
gardeners  of  Paris  have  paid  attention  to  its  cultivation 


for  at  least  half  a  century,  and  it  is  now  regarded  as 
a  regular  garden  crop  by  many — notwithstanding  its 
abundance  as  a  wild  plant.  Selection  and  cultivation 
have  produced  a  better  kind  of  Dandelion  altogether, 
and  plants  are  now  to  be  obtained  as  large  as  small 
Cabbage  Lettuces.  Cultivation  is  simple.  The  seeds 
are  sown  in  March  and  April,  and  the  young  plants 
are  pricked  out  from  May  to  August  in  rows,  12  to 
15  in.  apart,  in  a  deep  rich  soil,  the  richer  the  better. 
During  growth  the  hoe  is  frequently  used,  and  plenty 
of  water  is  given  during  dry  seasons.  The  leaves  may 
be  picked  during  the  autumn  and  winter  months. 
If  the  roots  are  covered  with  a  layer  of  soil  in  October, 
and  forced  in  the  same  way  as  recommended  for  Barbe 
de  Capucin  (see  p.  121),  the  Dandelion  makes  an 
excellent  salad. 


The  long  violet-fruited  Aubergine  or  Egg-plant 
(Solanum  Melongena)  is  seen  so  regularly  in  the  French 
and  Belgian  markets  that  it  is  astonishing  the 
taste  for  this  easily-grown  fruit  or  vegetable  has  not 
yet  spread  to  British  gardens.  The  variety  called 
Violette  de  Tokio  is  considered  to  be  earlier  than 
the  ordinary  kind.  It  is,  moreover,  dwarf er  in  habit 
and  has  larger  fruits. 

The  plant  is  an  annual,  and  is  a  native  of  India, 
and  is  also  found  in  Africa  and  subtropical  America. 

To  secure  the  first-early  crops,  seeds  are  sown  about 
the  end  of  November  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris, 
on  a  hot-bed  when  the  temperature  is  about  70°  to 
75°  Fahr.,  covering  them  lightly  with  gritty  mould. 


No  air  is  given  for  a  week  or  so  and  the  lights  are 
covered  with  mats  to  accelerate  germination.  When 
this  takes  place,  light  must  be  admitted,  and  the 
mats  are  only  put  on  at  night  for  protection. 

A  month  or  six  weeks  after  sowing,  the  young  plants 
are  pricked  out  on  similar  hot-beds,  allowing  3  to  4  in. 
between  each.  A  gentle  watering  is  given.  The  lights 
are  kept  closed  for  a  few  days,  and  the  young  plants 
are  shaded  from  the  sunshine.  As  soon  as  signs  of 
fresh  growth  appear,  a  little  air  is  given  in  fine  weather 
to  keep  the  plants  sturdy. 

Where  space,  manure,  and  lights  are  available,  Egg- 
plants may  be  pricked  out  a  second  time  a  fortnight 
or  so  after  the  first  one,  at  least  6  in.  being  left  between 
the  plants  on  this  occasion. 

From  eight  to  ten  weeks  after  the  seeds  have  been 
sown — that  is  to  say,  about  the  end  of  January,  or  early 
in  February — the  plants  should  be  placed  in  their 
fruiting  frames.  The  beds  in  these  need  not  be  quite 
so  hot  as  those  first  made,  as  the  temperature  outside 
is  gradually  increasing  each  day.  The  bed  is  covered 
with  about  8  in.  of  a  compost  half  of  which  is  sandy 
loam  and  half  rich  old  manure.  About  six  or  nine 
plants  are  then  carefully  placed  in  each  light,  and  a 
good  watering  completes  the  work.  The  lights  are 
kept  closed  and  the  plants  shaded  for  a  few  days, 
until  they  become  re-established. 

Intercropping. — The  space  between  the  Egg-plants 
need  not  be  wasted.  Seeds  of  "  Gotte  "  or  "  George  " 
Lettuces  and  Radishes  may  be  sown  between  them, 
or  young  Lettuces  of  the  varieties  mentioned  may  be 
pricked  out  in  the  rows. 

As  soon  as  the  Egg-plants  have  again  started  into 


growth,  air  must  be  given  on  all  favourable  occasions, 
otherwise  the  plants  will  become  "  drawn "  and 

When  the  main  shoot  carries  two  fertile  flowers  (not 
double  or  semi-double  ones),  the  top  may  be  pinched 
out.  This  results  in  the  development  in  due  course 
of  four  or  five  branches,  each  one  of  which  is  shortened 
back  a  little  above  the  second  flower.  From  -ten  to 
twelve  fruits  are  thus  secured  on  each  plant,  or  from 
sixty  to  a  hundred  or  more  in  each  light.  After  the 
branches  have  been  stopped  in  growth  by  pinching,  all 
other  side  shoots  are  rigorously  suppressed  as  they 
appear,  so  that  the  sap  shall  not  be  deflected  from  the 
swelling  fruits. 

The  general  cultural  treatment  consists  in  giving 
plenty  of  air  on  all  mild  days,  to  keep  the  plants  as 
dwarf  and  sturdy  as  possible  ;  watering  in  the  morning 
as  required  by  the  freedom  of  growth,  and  an  occasional 
syringing  with  soapy  water  in  the  event  of  insect 
attacks.  If  any  of  the  plants  are  too  weak  to  stand 
alone,  a  stake  must  be  placed  to  such,  and  the  main 
stem  and  branches  tied  to  it  with  raffia.  In  the  event 
of  the  plants  becoming  too  tall  for  the  lights  before  it 
is  safe  to  remove  these  altogether,  extra  height  is 
secured  by  placing  a  second  frame  on  top  of  the  first. 

The  fruits  from  the  first  crop  sown  at  the  end  of 
November  generally  ripen  about  five  months  after 
sowing  the  seeds,  which  brings  the  season  to  about 
the  end  of  April  or  early  in  May. 

A  succession  of  fruits  may  be  kept  up  by  sowing 
seeds  every  month  or  six  weeks  according  to  require- 
ments. With  each  succeeding  crop  less  heat  is  re- 
quired in  the  beds,  and  at  the  end  of  May  onwards 



the  lights  may  be  removed  altogether  if  fine  weather 

It  is  doubtful  if  it  would  be  worth  the  while  of  any 
British  market-grower  to  devote  space  to  the  culture 
of  Egg-plants,  as  even  in  France  the  prices  realised 
of  late  years  have  declined  a  good  deal. 


Endive  (Cichorium  Endivia),  supposed  to  have  come 
originally  from  India,  is  an  excellent  salad  plant,  and 
as  such  is  extensively  grown  by  French  market-gar- 
deners. Although  treated  as  an  annual,  Endive  is 
really  a  biennial,  and  may  be  divided  into  two  distinct 
kinds — one  having  the  leaves  broad  and  entire,  the 
other  having  the  leaves  finely  cut  into  crisped  and 
narrow  segments.  The  broad-leaved  Endives  are 
known  as  "  Scaroles "  or  "  Escaroles "  to  French 
gardeners,  while  the  varieties  with  finely  cut  and 
divided  leaves  are  called  "  Chicorees  frisees."  Of  the 
latter  there  are  many  varieties,  the  best-known  being 
the  Italian,  or  "  Chicoree  fine  d'ete,"  one  of  the  quickest 
growing  and  much  cultivated  in  frames.  Others  are 
the  "  Stag's  Horn,"  or  Rouen,  Picpus,  Ruffec,  Meaux 
(Fine-curled  Winter),  Passion,  and  Reine  d'hiver 
(Winter  Queen),  La  Parisienne  or  Green  Curled  Paris 
(fig.  34) — all  excellent  varieties  for  growing  in  the  open 
air,  although  the  first-named  (the  Rouen)  is  grown 
in  frames  in  spring. 

Frame  Culture. — Early  in  September,  and  again  in 
October,  seeds  of  the  Italian  Endive  (Chicoree  fine 
d'ete)  are  sown  under  cloches,  but  not  on  hot-beds. 
When  large  enough  to  handle,  the  seedlings  are  pricked 


out — a  dozen  under  each  cloche.  About  the  end  of 
October  or  early  in  November  plants  are  also  pricked 
out  into  cold  frames,  giving  as  much  air  as  possible  after 
the  first  few  days,  so  as  to  prevent  the  young  plants 
rotting  or  "  damping  off."  These  plants  will  be  fit  to 
gather  in  January  and  February,  and,  if  necessary, 
the  frames  which  have  been  utilised  for  their  culture 
then  become  available  for  forcing  Asparagus  (see  p.  76) . 


Hot-bed  Culture. — About  the  middle  of  October  a 
hot-bed  is  made  up,  and  when  the  heat  has  subsided 
until  the  temperature  is  about  75°  to  85°  Fahr.,  about 
5  in.  of  gritty  mould  is  spread  over  the  surface — which 
should  be  not  more  than  2  or  3  in.  away  from  the  glass. 
The  seeds  are  then  sown,  some  growers  afterwards 
covering  them  lightly  with  a  little  fine  gritty  mould, 
others  contenting  themselves  by  patting  them  down 
with  a  piece  of  board.  In  either  case  a  gentle^ watering 


is  given,  the  lights  are  put  on  the  frames,  and  are 
covered  with  mats.  This  is  to  ensure  rapid  germina- 
tion, which  is  necessary  to  prevent  the  plants  running 
to  seed  afterwards,  and  takes  place  in  about  forty- 
eight  hours  or  less,  if  the  seeds  are  not  too  old. 
Once  the  young  plants  appear,  the  mats  are  put  on 
at  night  and  taken  off  as  early  as  possible  in  the 
morning,  and  the  lights  are  tilted  a  little  to  admit 
fresh  air  on  all  occasions  when  the  weather  is  favour- 

Pricking  out. — About  ten  or  fifteen  days  after  the 
seeds  have  been  sown,  the  young  plants  will  be  ready 
for  pricking  out,  either  with  the  finger  or  a  small  stick. 
For  this  purpose  another  hot-bed,  similar  to  the  first, 
must  have  been  prepared,  the  only  difference  being 
that  the  surface  of  the  mould  spread  over  the  manure 
must  be  from  4  to  5  in.  away  from  the  glass.  The 
young  plants  are  spaced  out  2  to  3  in.  from  each 
other  all  ways,  and  are  buried  up  to  the  seed-leaves 
in  the  soil.  The  seedlings  are  gently  watered  with  a 
fine-rosed  waterpot,  and  after  the  lights  are  put  on 
the  frames  they  are  not  opened  for  two  or  three  days, 
until  the  young  plants  have  recovered.  The  mats, 
of  course,  are  put  on  every  night  and  taken  off  every 
day,  and  a  little  air  is  given  to  strengthen  the  plants 
on  fine  days. 

Transplanting. — From  two  to  three  weeks — that  is, 
about  the  middle  of  November — after  the  young 
Endives  have  been  pricked  out  as  above,  they  will 
be  large  enough  for  transplanting  finally.  This  will 
be  done  on  another  prepared  bed  having  a  temperature 
of  70°  to  80°  Fahr.  The  manure  in  the  hot-bed  should 
be  covered  with  a  compost  about  6  in.  thick,  made  up 


of  two-thirds  leaf-soil  or  old  manure  and  one-third 
gritty  loam  or  good  garden  soil.  The  surface  now 
should  be  about  5  or  6  in.  from  the  glass,  to  allow  the 
plants  sufficient  space  to  heart  up.  About  three  dozen 
plants  are  placed  under  each  light,  after  which  they 
are  nicely  watered  and  kept  "  close  "  for  a  few  days, 
and  also  slightly  shaded. 

Once  established,  air  is  given  on  all  fine  days  on  the 
leeward  side,  and  the  plants  are  given  water  whenever 
they  require  it,  judging  by  the  condition  of  the  soil, 


etc.  At  night-time  mats  must  be  spread  over  the 
lights — sometimes  two  or  three  thick  in  very  frosty 
weather.  They  should,  however,  be  removed  as  early 
as  possible  in  the  morning. 

In  the  event  of  the  heat  declining  in  the  beds,  it 
will  also  be  necessary  to  "  line  "  the  frames  with  fresh 

About  the  end  of  January — that  is  about  three 
months  and  a  half  from  the  date  of  sowing  the  seeds 
in  mid-October — the  Endives  will  be  ready  to  gather. 

Seeds  of  Endive  may  also  be  sown  in  the  way  de- 
scribed about  the  middle  of  January,  to  be  ready  by 


the  middle  of  March  ;  and  again  in  the  middle  of 
February  for  gathering  in  May.  As  the  season  ad- 
vances and  becomes  naturally  warmer,  it  will  not  be 
necessary  to  make  the  hot-beds  so  thick  or  with  so 
much  fresh  manure  as  for  those  used  during  the  colder 
months  of  the  year. 

From  the  middle  of  March,  fine-leaved  Endives  may 
be  sown  under  cloches  or  in  cold  frames,  pricking  out 
the  seedlings  and  transplanting  in  due  course  in  the 
way  already  described.  As  the  season  advances,  the 
lights  or  cloches  may  be  taken  off  the  plants  altogether 
in  fine  weather.  They  must  be  kept  growing  steadily 
by  giving  plenty  of  water,  almost  every  day  it  does 
not  rain,  otherwise  there  is  a  danger  of  the  plants 
running  to  seed  or  "  bolting." 

Intercropping. — During  the  summer  months  Endives 
in  the  open  air  are  intercropped  with  Cos  and  Cabbage 
Lettuces,  and  later  on  in  the  season  Spinach  or 
Corn  Salad  is  often  sown  between  the  rows.  I  have 
seen  such  plantations  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Vitry 
in  August,  and  was  astonished  at  the  use  made  of 
every  square  inch  of  ground. 

The  broad-leaved  or  "  Scarole  "  Endives  possess  a 
hardy  constitution  and  are  finely  flavoured.  The  most 
popular  varieties  are  the  "Batavian"  or  "Scarole  ronde," 
"  Green-market  "  or  "  Vertemaraichere,"  chiefly  grown 
for  autumn  and  winter  use  ;  while  the  "  Scarole  blonde," 
or  "  Lettuce-leaved  Endive,"  is  an  early  variety  that 
comes  into  use  in  June  and  July  from  seeds  sown 
about  the  middle  of  April  on  a  bed  having  a  tempera- 
ture of  65°  to  70°  Fahr.  The  "  blonde  "  Endives  are 
planted  about  i  ft.  apart  every  way,  but  the  "Batavian" 
(fig.  35)  ("  ronde ")  or  "  Verte  maraichere "  kinds 


require  another  2  in.  Another  large  variety  called 
"  S ' carole  geante  "  or  "  Giant  Batavian,"  owing  to  its 
size  and  vigour,  requires  about  18  in.  between  each 
plant,  to  allow  it  to  reach  its  proper  size. 

The  autumn  plantations  should  be  made  not  later 
than  the  first  week  in  September  as  a  rule  ;  and  then 
it  would  be  wise  to  have  the  plants  in  beds  of  the 
same  width  as  the  lights  and  frames  generally  in  use, 
as  these  are  handy  for  protection  if  necessary. 

Blanching  and  Tying. — There  are  many  ways  of 
blanching  Endives,  but  one  of  the  simplest  is  to  tie 
the  plants  up  in  the  same  way  as  recommended  for 
Lettuces  when  they  are  sufficiently  developed — say 
when  more  than  three-fourths  of  their  growth  has 
been  made.  When  the  frosts  appear,  the  plants 
may  be  lifted  carefully  with  a  spade  and  transferred 
to  cellars  or  placed  in  frames — spreading  some  dry 
litter  or  straw  over  the  plants  in  the  latter  to  exclude 
the  light.  In  the  open  air,  after  the  plants  are  tied 
up,  they  must  be  liberally  watered  when  necessary, 
to  encourage  the  whitening  "  hearts  "  in  the  centre 
to  mature  as  rapidly  as  possible. 


The  Leek  (Allium  Porrum)  constitutes  an  important 
crop  in  French  as  well  as  in  English  market-gardens, 
and  it  is  probable  that,  so  far  as  open-air  culture  is 
concerned,  there  is  but  little  difference  in  methods 
employed  on  both  sides  of  the  Channel.*  Ideas, 
however,  differ  a  good  deal,  and  the  French  prefer 
the  smaller  and  more  quickly  grown  tender-stemmed 


Leeks  to  the  excessively  large  specimens  seen  in 

The  varieties  selected  for  early  crops  by  the  Parisian 
gardeners  are  known  as  the  "  Rouen,"  the  "  Long  Winter 
Paris  "  (Long  d'hiver  de  Paris),  the  "  Large  Yellow 
Poitou "  (Gros  Jaune  du  Poitou),  and  the  "  Gros 
Court  "  or  "  Ete,"  to  which  may  be  added  the  well- 
known  ' '  Lyon ' '  and  ' '  Musselburgh ' '  varieties.  Which- 
ever variety  is  chosen,  the  main  object  in  view  is 
to  secure  Leeks  of  medium  size  in  the  early  days 
of  June. 

Seeds  are  sown  thickly  in  the  latter  half  of  December 
on  a  hot-bed  about  15  in.  deep  and  with  a  temperature 
of  60°  to  65°  Fahr.  To  hasten  germination,  it  is  a 
good  plan  to  soak  the  seeds  in  luke-warm  water  for 
about  twelve  hours — more  or  less — in  advance.  If  the 
primary  root  in  the  seed  begins  to  show,  it  may  be 
taken  for  granted  that  the  seeds  have  soaked  long 
enough.  They  should  then  be  sown  at  once,  on  a 
layer  about  4  in.  deep  of  rich  gritty  soil  that  has 
been  spread  over  the  manure  in  the  beds,  and  lightly 
covered  with  gritty  mould.  Each  day  the  soil  should 
be  sprinkled  with  tepid  water  until  the  plants  are 
well  above  the  surface.  At  this  stage  a  little  air 
may  be  given  by  tilting  the  lights  on  all  fine  days, 
but  care  must  be  taken  not  to  subject  the  seedlings 
to  cold  draughts  of  air,  as  these  cause  a  chill  and 
consequent  stagnation  of  growth.  At  night  it  will 
be  found  more  or  less  necessary  to  spread  a  mat  or 
two  over  the  lights  according  to  the  weather,  but 
such  coverings  must  be  taken  off  as  early  as  possible 
the  morning  following. 

This  treatment  is  kept  up  with  occasional  waterings 

LEEKS  141 

until  about  the  end  of  February  or  early  in  March. 
The  young  Leeks  are  then  fit  for  pricking  out  into 
another  fairly  good  hot-bed.  Only  the  very  best 
plants  are  selected,  and  these  may  have  the  roots 
and  the  leaves  cut  back  in  the  same  way  as  recom- 
mended for  Spring  Onions  (see  p.  186).  A  space  of 
3  or  4  in.  is  left  between  the  little  Leeks,  and  care 
is  taken  to  bury  them  deeply — leaving  only  an  inch 
or  two  showing  above  the  surface,  because  deep 
planting  means  beautiful  white  stems  later  on.  A 
good  soaking  is  given,  and  no  air  is  admitted  for  a 
few  days  until  the  plants  have  recovered.  Afterwards 
air  is  given  more  or  less  freely  on  all  favourable  occa- 
sions, and  the  Leeks  will  be  ready  early  in  June. 

From  the  same  seed-bed  Leeks  may  also  be  planted 
early  in  March  on  warm,  sheltered  borders  in  the 
open  air,  after  cutting  the  roots  and  tops,  and  they 
will  succeed  those  planted  in  the  frames.  They  should 
be  kept  nicely  watered  in  dry  weather  to  keep  the 
growth  active. 

Open-air  Culture. — The  soil  for  Leeks  in  the  open 
air  cannot  be  too  rich  and  deep  to  secure  the  best 
results.  Seeds  may  be  sown  at  four  different  periods 
to  keep  up  a  succession,  namely,  (i)  in  February  or 
March  sow  "  Gros  Court  "  or  "  Jaune  du  Poitou  "  to 
yield  Leeks  in  August  and  September  ;  (ii)  in  April 
and  May  sow  "  Rouen  "  to  yield  from  October  on- 
wards ;  (iii)  in  July  sow  "  Long  Winter  Paris  "  to 
yield  at  the  end  of  winter  and  early  spring  ;  and  (iv) 
sow  the  same  variety  in  the  first  half  of  September  to 
yield  in  April  and  May  and  June  the  following  year. 

In  all  cases — except  the  September  sowing — the 
seeds  should  be  sown  thickly,  as  the  plants  are  thus 


kept  very  straight  by  crowding.  When  the  stems 
are  about  as  thick  as  an  ordinary  slate-pencil  they 
should  be  lifted  carefully,  and  the  best  selected  for 
transplanting,  after  the  roots  and  tops  have  been 
cut  as  described  for  Onions  (see  p.  186).  The  seeds 
sown  in  September  should  be  sown  thinly  in  drills, 
and  as  the  weather  is  generally  unfavourable,  the 
Leeks  are  allowed  to  develop  to  the  required  size  in 
the  seed-beds. 

An  excellent  way  to  secure  nice  Leeks  from  the 
earlier  sowings  is  to  select  a  piece  of  ground  that 
has  been  deeply  dug  or  trenched,  and  heavily  manured 
the  previous  season.  Drills  about  2  in.  deep  and  i  ft. 
apart  are  drawn  running  north  and  south  if  possible. 
In  these  drills  the  best  Leeks  are  planted  deeply 
and  6  in.  apart,  after  the  tips  of  the  roots  and  tops 
have  been  cut  off.  After  planting,  the  soil  is  given 
a  good  watering,  and  when  the  Leeks  are  in  full 
growth  afterwards,  attention  must  be  given  to  watering 
when  necessary.  Indeed,  weak  liquid  manure  from 
the  stables  or  cow-sheds,  or  made  from  guano  and 
soot,  etc.,  given  two  or  three  times  a  week  will  keep 
the  plants  in  an  active  state  o;*  growth  until  they  are 
required  for  use. 


As  a  salad,  perhaps,  there  is  no  other  plant  equal 
in  importance  and  popularity  to  the  Lettuce  (Lactuca 
saliva).  It  is  quite  as  popular  in  the  British  Islands 
as  on  the  Continent,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say 
that  millions  of  plants  are  grown  in  market-gardens 


alone  in  England  to  meet  the  great  demand  there  is 
for  them — especially  in  hot  seasons. 

There  are  two  distinct  kinds  of  Lettuces  grown, 
namely,  (i)  the  "  Cabbage  Lettuce  "  (Lactma  capi- 
tata),  and  (ii)  the  "  Cos  "  or  "  Romaine  "  Lettuce 
(Lactuca  sativa).  Each  kind  has  several  varieties, 
some  being  more  suitable  for  frame  and  bell-glass 
culture,  while  others  nourish  in  the  open  air. 

They  may  be  classified  as  follows  for  intensive 
cultivation  : 


The  seeds  of  the  varieties  belonging  to  this  group  are 
generally  sown  between  September  i  and  the  end  of 
February,  and  again  in  March  for  a  succession  on 
warm  borders. 

The  varieties  most  in  favour  with  Parisian  growers 
are  : 

1.  The    Crepe    or  Petite    noire    Lettuce    (white  and 
black-seeded  varieties).     Both  kinds  are  grown  exten- 
sively for  the  first-early    crops,  for  which  they  are 
specially  adapted,  as  they  "  heart  up  "  without  much 
air  or  water. 

2.  Gotte  Lettuce  (white  and  black-seeded  varieties). 
The  White-seeded  Gotte   (syn.   Tennis  Ball,    Boston 
Market)  is  an  excellent  small-hearted  frame  Lettuce, 
but  is  not  so  early  as  the  Black-seeded  Gotte  (syn. 
Paris    Market    Forcing).     Good    sub- varieties    of    the 
Gotte    Lettuce  are    Tom    Thumb,  Jaune    d'Or    (syn. 
Golden  Frame),  the  George,  and  another  form  of  the 
Paris  market  forcing  variety,  Gotte  lente  d  monter  (or 
Black-seeded  Tom  Thumb). 


— i.  Blond  d'ete  or  Royale  (syn.  White-seeded  All- 
the-Year-Round) .  An  excellent  variety,  nearly  all 
"  heart,"  small,  but  very  prolific  and  early,  and  much 

2.  Palatine    (syn.   Brown    Genoa),   a  large-hearted, 
quick-growing  variety,  the  leaves  of  which  are  washed 
with  coppery  red  beneath. 

3.  Grosse  brune  paresseuse  (syn.  Black-seeded  Giant 
Summer    Lettuce    or    Mogul).      A    hardy    and    very 


productive  Lettuce,  forming  a  high  centre,  tinged  with 
brown  (fig.  44). 

4.  Grosse  blonde    paresseuse    (syn.   White  Stone  or 
Nonpareil   Cabbage   Lettuce).     An   excellent   summer 
Lettuce,  with  large  tender  long-standing  heads  (fig.  36). 

5.  Blonde    de     Chavigny    (syn.     Chavigny    White- 
seeded    Lettuce).       A    quick-hearting     variety    with 
pleasing  yellowish-tinted  green  leaves. 

6.  Merveille  des   Quatre   Saisons  (syn.  All  the  Year 
Round).     An  excellent  Cabbage  Lettuce  for  all  seasons 
if  a  red-tinted  variety  is  required. 

To  the   above  may  be   added  the  Brown  or   Red 


Dutch  Cabbage  Lettuce  (Rousse  de  Hollande),  the 
Presbytery,  Brown  Champagne,  and  the  White 

For  "  outdoor "  crops  in  the  British  Islands,  it 
may  probably  be  safer,  if  not  wiser  at  first,  to  rely 
upon  standard  varieties  that  have  been  well  proved. 
At  the  same  time  the  sensible  grower  will  test  several 
varieties  in  the  hope  of  securing  something  better 
than  he  has  already. 

(c)  WINTER  CABBAGE  LETTUCES. — The  varieties  in 
this  group  naturally  follow  those  produced  in  the 
summer  and  autumn,  and  are  raised  from  seeds  sown 
in  August  and  September,  to  be  grown  on  during 
the  winter  months  with  or  without  protection.  The 
most  popular  varieties  are  : 

1.  The    Passion.    There   are   two   varieties   of  this 
—the  white-seeded  and  the  black-seeded.     The  former 
(called  "  blonde  ")  is    recognised  by  the  reddish  tint 
of   the   foliage,    while   the   black-seeded   variety   has 
pale  green  foliage  without  the  reddish  tint  (see  fig.  45). 

2.  Grosse  blonde  d'hiver  (syn.  Winter  White  Cabbage 
Lettuce)  is  a  hardy  variety,  and  produces  its  large 
tender  hearts  early. 

3.  Morine    (syn.    Hammersmith,    or    Hardy   Green 
Winter  Cabbage  Lettuce).     This  is  a  small,  but  very 
hardy  and  productive  Lettuce  of  good  quality. 

4.  Winter     Tremont. — A    good    and    very    hardy 
variety  with  large    white  hearts,   the    outer   leaves, 
however,  being  tinted  with  rusty  brown  (see  fig.  46) . 

LETTUCES. — The  first  sowing  of  these  Lettuces  takes 
place  early  in  September,  and  may  be  made  either  on 



a  warm  sheltered  border,  a  raised  bed,  or  an  old  hot- 
bed protected  by  cloches  or  lights.  When  sown  on  a 
border  the  soil  is  first  of  all  deeply  dug  and  then  levelled 
with  the  rake.  The  surface  is  covered  over  with  a 
good  inch  or  more  of  mould  made  up  of  old  manure 
and  gritty  soil  passed  through  a  sieve. 

The  seeds  are  sown  fairly  thick,  and  lightly  covered 
with  the  gritty  mould,  after  which  the  seed-bed  is 
gently  patted  down  to  bring  the  soil  and  seeds  into 
closer  contact.  If  inclined  to  be  too  dry,  the  seed- 
bed is  gently  watered  to  settle  the  soil  and  encourage 

When  the  seeds  are  to  be  sown  under  cloches,  each 
little  seed-bed  is  marked  out  by  pressing  down  a 
cloche  upon  the  prepared  surface  of  the  soil  so  that 
the  imprint  of  its  circumference  is  plainly  seen.  After 
sowing,  the  seeds  are  lightly  covered  with  fine  soil. 
The  cloches  are  then  placed  over  them,  taking  care 
to  press  the  rims  firmly  into  the  soil  to  exclude  air 
and  to  check  evaporation.  Germination  at  this  period 
of  the  year  usually  takes  place  under  the  cloches  in  a 
few  days.  If  the  sun  happens  to  be  too  ardent  at  the 
time,  the  cloches  should  be  shaded  with  litter  or  mats, 
but  no  air  is  given.  When,  however,  the  young  plants 
appear,  shading  must  only  be  given  when  the  sun 
becomes  too  hot,  otherwise  the  plants  become  "  drawn  " 
and  pale  in  colour. 

Pricking  out. — When  the  seed-leaves  or  cotyledons 
are  well  developed  and  the  first  true  leaves  begin  to 
form,  French  gardeners  prepare  to  prick  out  the  young 
plants,  either  on  a  raised  bed  or  "  ados  "  (see  p.  13), 
or  under  cloches  or  lights. 

In  the  case  of  a  raised  bed  this  should  be  well  ex- 


posed  to  the  south  if  possible,  and  be  higher  at  the 
back  than  at  the  front,  the  width  being  the  regulation 
one  of  4|-  ft. 

Three  rows  of  cloches  are  placed  on  each  raised  bed. 
Under  each  cloche  twenty-four  or  thirty  Lettuces  are 
pricked  out  (see  figs.  37-8),  the  outer  row  being  about 
2  in.  away  from  the  rim  of  the  glass  so  that  the  young 
plants  may  not  be  injured  by  frost.  In  the  event 
of  any  becoming  frosted  they  should  be  pulled  out 
and  thrown  away,  as  they  rarely  heart  up  properly 

FIG.  37. — SHOWING  HOW  24  SEED-  FIG.  38. — SHOWING  HOW  30  SEED- 

The  young  plants  are  usually  pricked  out  with  the 
finger,  as  there  are  fewer  failures  in  this  way  than  if  a 
dibber  or  a  pointed  stick  is  used.  It  is  also  a  quicker 
way  of  pricking  out  a  large  number  of  plants,  and 
French  gardeners  are  often  whole  days  at  a  time  on 
their  knees  at  this  particular  work. 

When  the  work  is  finished,  the  young  plants  are 
lightly  sprinkled  over  with  tepid  water,  and  no  air 
is  given  for  a  few  days. 

When  frames  are  used,  they  are  placed  in  a  position 
sloping  towards  the  south.  They  are  filled  up  with 
mould  to  within  3  or  4  in.  of  the  lights.  A  layer  of 


fine  sifted  sandy  mould  about  an  inch  thick  is  then 
spread  over  the  soil,  and  the  young  plants  are  pricked 
out  with  the  finger  about  2J-  to  3  in.  apart,  after 
which  they  are  gently  watered,  and  kept  "  close/' 
i.e.  without  air,  for  a  few  days  until  growth  re- 

Of  course  the  little  plants  are  carefully  raised  from 
the  seed-bed  so  that  as  little  injury  as  possible  is  done 
to  the  tender  rootlets. 

Shading. — Whether  the  young  plants  are  under 
cloches  or  under  lights,  it  is  advisable  during  the  first 
few  days  to  shade  them  from  strong  sunshine.  Once 
they  have  recovered  a  little  air  may  be  given  to  keep 
them  sturdy.  On  the  approach  of  early  frosts  the 
lights  and  cloches  must  be  covered  with  mats  during 
the  night,  and  dry  leaves  and  litter  must  be  placed 
round  the  cloches. 

First  Crop  of  "  Crepe  "  Lettuces. — About  the  middle 
of  October,  or  even  earlier,  the  Lettuces  that  have 
been  pricked  out  under  cloches  or  in  frames  in  the 
way  described  above  will  be  ready  for  transplanting 
to  their  final  quarters.  Beds  about  4^  ft.  wide  are 
prepared  by  digging  and  levelling,  but  there  is  no 
need  to  use  raised  beds  or  "  ados  "  at  this  period. 
Old  beds  from  which  other  crops  have  been  gathered 
are  often  used  for  this  purpose,  and  as  the  plants 
require  but  little  heat,  the  old  manure  and  soil  is  simply 
turned  over  and  made  up  afresh. 

When  cloches  are  used,  three  rows  as  usual  are 
arranged,  and  under  each  one  four  plants  of  these 
"  Crepe  "  Lettuces  are  planted.  In  frames  about  49  (in 
rows  7  by  7)  or  56  (in  rows  8  by  7)  plants  are  placed 
under  each  light. 


Each  plant  is  lifted  with  a  "  ball  "  of  soil  round  the 
roots,  and  any  dead  or  decaying  leaves  at  the  base 
are  carefully  picked  off.  Care  must  also  be  taken 
not  to  place  the  "  collar  "  of  the  plant  too  low  in  the 
soil,  otherwise  the  lower  leaves  come  in  contact  with 
the  moist  earth,  and  may  be  attacked  by  mildew. 

After  the  plants  are  in  position,  a  sprinkling  of 
tepid  water  may  be  given  to  settle  the  soil  round  them, 
No  air,  however,  is  given  to  these  early  crops  of  "  Crepe  " 
Lettuces,  and  once  established  it  is  even  dangerous 
to  give  them  water  overhead.  If  the  manure  in  the 
pathways  is  kept  wet  they  will  secure  sufficient  mois- 
ture by  capillary  attraction  (see  p.  15).  Protection 
from  frost  by  covering  with  mats  at  night  and  by 
placing  dry  manure  or  litter  round  the  cloches  or 
frames  must  also  be  attended  to  as  required. 

This  first  crop  of  "  Crepe  "  Lettuces  ought  to  be 
ready  for  sale  by  the  beginning  of  December,  or  even 
by  the  end  of  November,  according  to  the  season. 

The  Lettuce  plants  are  frequently  examined  and 
any  decaying  leaves  are  carefully  removed  to  prevent 
the  spread  of  mildew. 

Second  and  Successive  Crops  of  l(  Crepe  "  Lettuces. — 
About  every  fortnight  seeds  may  be  sown  to  keep  up 
a  succession.  Many  growers,  however,  substitute  the 
"George"  Gotte  Lettuce  for  the  "Crepe"  for  the 
sowings  at  the  end  of  February  and  during  March. 

The  sowings  of  "  Crepe  "  Lettuce  made  in  October, 
November,  and  December  are  always  made  by  them- 
selves ;  but  those  made  at  the  end  of  December, 
January,  February,  and  beginning  of  March  may  be 
intercropped  with  Cauliflowers.  Besides,  they  are 
made  on  the  same  beds  as  the  preceding,  which  will 


have  been  re-made  by  adding  about  one-third  of  fresh 
manure  to  the  old. 

About  the  middle  of  February  the  old  beds  are 
sometimes  re-made  with  a  little  fresh  manure  for  the 
third  crop.  If,  however  the  plants  appear  to  stand 
still  the  frames  must  be  "  lined  "  or  "  banked  up  '' 
with  hot  manure,  no  matter  what  the  period  of  the 
year  may  be.  Of  course  the  mats  are  taken  off  the 
lights  and  cloches  every  morning  as  early  as  possible 
to  admit  light  to  the  plants.  It  is  well,  however, 
before  uncovering  altogether  to  make  sure  that  the 
plants  have  not  been  frosted.  If  they  have,  instead 
of  taking  off  the  mats,  others  are  added  so  that  the 
thawing  may  take  place  as  slowly  as  possible.  By 
this  means  injury  to  the  plants  is  avoided. 

In  December,  many  growers,  instead  of  making 
up  special  beds  for  Lettuces,  plant  the  "  Crepe  "  variety 
on  top  of  the  Carrots  which  have  been  sown,  and  they 
are  ready  about  fifty  days  after- 
wards— that  is,  some  time  in 

If  the  frost  increases  in  seve- 
rity, the  frames  are  kept  warm 
by  filling  the  pathways  with  hot 
manure  up  to  the  top  of  the 

FIG.  39. — SHOWING  HOW       .  . 

ONE  Cos  (IN  THE  GEN-     hghts,  and  it  may   be   necessary 
TRE)   AND  4  CABBAGE     to    have    a    double    covering   of 

LETTUCES  AREPLANTED  ,          .  ,1  .     ,    , 

UNDER  A  CLOCHE.  mats  during  the  night. 

The    last    crop    of     "  Crepe " 

Lettuce  is  planted  in  January  or  February  according 
to  the  weather.  A  hot-bed  12  to  14  in.  thick  is  pre- 
pared. The  surface  is  covered  with  a  layer  about  4  in. 
thick  of  nice  gritty  mould,  and  then  the  cloches  are 


placed  in  position  in  three  rows  as  usual.  Under  each 
cloche  four  "  Crepe"  Lettuces  with  one  Cos  (Romaine) 
in  the  centre  are  planted  (see  fig.  39).  During  the 
night  they  are  covered  with  mats  as  usual,  and 
generally  attended  to,  with  the  result  that  the  plants 
are  mature  by  the  end  of  February  or  during 

CULTURE  OF  "  GOTTE  "  LETTUCE. — As  already  stated 
there  are  two  varieties  of  "  Gotte  "  Lettuce — the  black- 
seeded  or  "  Paris  Market,"  and  the  white-seeded  or 
[<  Tennis  Ball."  The  latter  is  larger  and  later  in 
hearting  up  than  the  former  (fig.  40). 

The  general  cultivation  of  "Gotte"  Lettuces  differs  but 
little  from  that  of  the  "Crepe"  or  "  Petite  noire"  varie- 
ties. The  first  sowing  may  be 
made  during  the  second  half 
of  October  or  during  the  early 
days  of  November,  under 
cloches  or  on  raised  sloping 
beds.  The  soil  should  be 
rather  more  sandy  than  for 

"Crepe"  Lettuces.  When  large  enough,  the  young 
plants  are  pricked  out  under  cloches  and  on  the  raised 
beds.  Being  larger  in  growth  than  the  "Crepe" 
varieties,  only  twenty-four  plants  of  "  Gotte  "  Lettuce 
should  be  placed  under  each  cloche  instead  of  thirty — 
the  young  plants  being  sprinkled  and  kept  close  for 
two  or  three  days  afterwards  until  they  pick  up  again. 
Afterwards  air  is  given  more  or  less  freely  according 
to  the  weather,  as  "  Gotte  "  Lettuces  do  not  heart  up 
well  if  kept  too  close.  Besides,  it  is  not  necessary  to 
shut  the  cloches  right  down  until  two  or  three  degrees 
of  frost  appear.  If,  however,  the  weather  remains 


cold  and  the  frosts  become  severe,  the  plants  must 
be  protected  by  dry  litter  or  mats. 

About  the  end  of  January  or  early  in  February 
the  "  Gotte  "  Lettuces  will  be  ready  for  planting  under 
cloches  or  in  frames,  the  soft,  and  beds  in  which  have 
been  prepared  for  their  reception  in  the  meantime. 
The  cloches  having  been  arranged  on  beds — which 
should  be  at  least  i  ft.  thick,  about  4^  ft.  wide, 
and  with  about  4  in.  of  nice  gritty  mould  on  top — 
three  "  Gotte  "  Lettuces  are  planted  under  each  glass, 
as  shown  in  the  diagram  (fig.  47),  without  a  Cos 
Lettuce  in  the  centre,  however. 

In  the  frames,  from  which  probably  the  "  Crepe  " 
varieties  have  been  gathered,  and  which  have  been 
re-made,  36  or  42  plants  may  be  placed  under  each 
light.  They  are  then  gently  watered  in  and  air  is 
excluded  for  three  or  four  days  to  encourage  root 
action  and  new  growth.  Afterwards  air  is  given  as 
freely  as  the  weather  will  permit,  until  ready  for 
market,  which  is  generally  about  the  end  of  March 
for  those  planted  in  January,  and  in  April  for  those 
planted  in  February. 

Intercropping. — Very  often  before  the  earlier  crops 
of  Lettuce  are  planted,  Radishes  are  sown  on  the 
beds ;  while  with  the  later  crops,  Radishes  and 
Carrots  are  also  sown,  although  some  prefer  to  inter- 
crop with  Cauliflowers.  As  soon  as  the  first  crops  * 
have  been  gathered,  the  beds  are  re-made  and  prepared 
for  those  to  follow  them. 

For  the  crops  that  are  planted  in  March,  many 
growers  substitute  cloches  for  frames,  if  Carrots  have 
not  been  sown  previously.  Four  Cabbage  Lettuces 
and  one  Cos  Lettuce  in  the  centre  are  planted  beneath 



each  cloche.  The  spaces  between  the  cloches  are 
occupied  by  Cauliflowers  as  shown  in  the  diagram. 
Before  planting  the  Lettuces  and  covering  with 
cloches,  a  sowing  of  Carrots  may  also  be  made.  This 
method  of  cultivation  enables  one  to  secure  four  or 
five  different  crops  from  the  same  soil — Radishes, 
Cabbage  Lettuces,  Romaine  or  Cos  Lettuces,  Carrots, 
and  Cauliflowers. 



Cauliflowers  (c)  may  be  planted  on  the  borders,  and  other  later 
crop  Lettuces  at  x  and  *  to  be  covered  in  turn  with  the  glasses. 

as  the  "  Gotte  "  Lettuces  naturally  succeed  the  "Crepe  " 
or  "  Petite  noire "  varieties,  they  are  themselves 
•succeeded  by  the  "George"  Lettuce  at  the  end  of 
February  or  beginning  of  March.  The  "  George"  Lettuce 
is  a  form  of  the  "  Gotte  "  but  is  larger  in  growth.  The 
first  "  George  "  Lettuces  are  ready  for  planting  in 
February  on  the  beds  or  under  cloches  from  which 
a  crop  of  "  Crepe  "  Lettuces  have  been  taken,  the 
treatment  as  to  watering,  shading,  protection  from 


frost,  and  ventilation  being  the  same  as  already 
described.  The  "  George  "  Lettuces  planted  in 
February  are  generally  fit  for  "  pulling "  by  the 
end  of  March.  At  this  period  the'*  George  "  Lettuces 
may  also  be  planted  in  the  open  air  on  a  warm  and 
sheltered  border,  the  young  plants  having  been  pre- 
viously raised  and  pricked  out  under  cloches.  These 
open-air  Lettuces  "  heart  up  "  during  May. 

-This  Lettuce  (fig.  42)  with  which  may  be  associated 

other  varieties  known  as 
the  "All  the  Year  Round" 
(Merveille  des  Quatre 
Saisons)  and  "  Brown 
Champagne"  (brune  de 
Champagne) — is  sown  in  the 
latter  half  of  October  under 

FIG.  42-PALATiNE  CABBAGE          Qoches      and     Qn     raised 


sloping  beds,  the  treatment 

being  precisely  the  same  as  for  the  "  Gotte  "  and 
"  George  "  Lettuces.  Air  is  given  freely  on  all  favour- 
able occasions  when  the  young  plants  have  become 
established,  and  the  cloches  are  even  taken  off  alto- 
gether on  fine  days  so  as  to  keep  the  plants  strong 
and  sturdy. 

During  March  the  young  plants  are  taken  from 
their  winter  quarters  and  transferred  to  warm  sheltered 
borders  ;  and  towards  the  end  of  the  same  month 
or  early  in  April  plantations  may  be  made  in  the 
open  or  on  old  beds.  The  soil  beforehand  should  have 
been  deeply  dug  and  levelled,  and  if  a  good  layer  of 
old  mould  has  been  spread  over  it,  so  much  the  better. 
The  plants  are  spaced  out  about  a  foot  apart  in  straight 



lines,  and  should  receive  a  good  watering  if  the  weather 
is  fine,  so  as  to  settle  the  soil  around  the  roots.  This 
crop  of  Lettuces  is  generally  fit  to  gather  about  the 
end  of  May. 

Other  sowings  of  the  same  varieties  may  be  made 
at  the  end  of  February  or  early  in  March,  and  then 
every  fortnight  until  August,  in  due  course  planting 
out  about  a  foot  apart,  or  intercropping  with  other 
vegetables.  Such  crops  take  from  fifty  to  seventy 
days  to  mature,  according  to  the  season. 

During  the  period  of  growth  it  will  be  necessary  to 
run  the  hoe  between  the  plants  to  stir  up  the  soil, 
not  only  to  keep  the  weeds  down,  but  to  encourage 
quicker  growth.  In  the  event  of  very  dry  weather, 
frequent  waterings  will  be  necessary,  or  a  mulching 
from  the  old  manure  beds  may  be  placed  on  the 
surface  of  the  soil  to  retain  the  moisture. 

Other  Cabbage  Lettuces  that  may  be  sown  at  the 
same  time  as  the 
"Palatine"  and 
treated  in  the 
same  way,  are 
"  White  -  seeded 
All  the 
Year  Round " 
(blonde  d'ete)  or 
"  Royal,"  (fig. 
43)  an  early  and 
productive  kind; 
"Brown  Chavigny,"  a  strong-growing  kind;  the 
"  Large  Brown  Paresseuse  "  or  "  Grise  "  Lett  ace 
of  the  Paris  market-gardeners ;  and  the  "  Brown 
Champagne  "  —all  varieties  of  first-rate  quality.  With 

FIG.  43. — "  ALL  THE  YEAR  ROUND  " 


them  may  be  associated  the  "  Dutch  Red  "  (Rousse 
de  Hollande)  and  the  "  Presbytery  "  Lettuce. 

English  growers  should  bear  in  mind  the  difference 
in  taste  between  French  and  English  people.  Gener- 
ally speaking,  brown  or  red-tinted  Lettuces — no 
matter  how  excellent  they  may  be — do  not  sell  so 
readily  in  the  English  markets  as  they  do  in  Paris. 

— Under  these  names  the  French  market-gardeners  grow 
thousands  of  Cabbage  Lettuces,  which  are  apparently 
the  same  as  those  known  in  England  as  "  Giant 

Summer  Lettuces" 
(fig.  44).  The  first 
crop  is  sown  about 
the  end  of  February 
or  beginning  of 
March  on  a  hot-bed 
or  in  a  frame.  As 
there  is  no  necessity 
for  such  care  at  this 
season  of  the  year 
as  is  necessitated  by 

the  autumn  crops,  the  young  plants  may  be  trans- 
ferred when  ready  direct  from  the  seed-bed  to  their 
final  quarters  in  the  open  frames.  The  labour  of 
pricking  out  is  thus  saved.  The  plants  are  15  to 
18  in.  apart,  and  during  dry  weather  are  kept  well 
watered  or  mulched  with  old  manure,  so  as  to  keep 
them  crisp  and  tender.  Sowings  of  "  Grise  "  Lettuces 
may  be  made  every  fortnight  until  July,  those  during 
the  summer  being  made  in  shady  places  in  the  open. 

WINTER  CABBAGE  LETTUCES. — There  are  now  about 
half  a  dozen  kinds  of  Cabbage  Lettuce  grown  in  frames 



or  under  cloches  during  the  winter  months.  Perhaps 
the  best-known  at  present  is  that  called  the  "  Passion  " 
— of  which  there  are  two  varieties,  the  "  Red  "  and 
the  "  White,"  so  called  from  the  colour  of  the  foliage. 
The  name  of  "  Passion  "  Lettuce  has  been  given  simply 
because  this  va- 
riety is  usually  fit 
for  gathering  in 
Passion  Week,  i.e. 
second  week  be- 
fore Easter.  When 
grown  in  the  open 
air, ' '  Passion ' '  Let- 
tuces are  not  likely 


to  be  ready  much 

before    May    if    the     spring    is    cold     and    sunless 

(%.  45). 

Other  kinds  of  winter  Lettuces  are  "  Large  White 
Winter "  (blonde  d'hiver),  a  strong-growing  variety 
that  produces  a  very  white  and  tender  heart  early 
in  the  season  ;  '  Winter  Brown  "  (brune  d'hiver),  a 
somewhat  smaller  variety,  the  outer  leaves  of  which 
are  washed  with  brown  ;  the  "  Morine  "  or  "  Ham- 
mersmith Green  Winter,"  a  small  sturdy  Lettuce ; 
"  Winter  Red  "  (rouge  d'hiver},  a  hardy  variety  with 
reddish  foliage  and  a  raised  "  heart  "  ;  and  "  Winter 
Tremont  "  (fig.  46),  which  has  a  large,  firm,  very  white 
heart,  and  outer  leaves  washed  with  rusty  brown. 

Culture. — "  Passion "  and  other  winter  Lettuces 
may  be  sown  from  the  middle  of  August  to  the  middle 
of  September.  About  a  month  after  sowing,  the 
young  plants  will  be  ready  for  pricking  out  in  warm 
sheltered  positions.  In  ordinary  mild  winters  they 


require  no  special  protection,  nevertheless  it  is  wise 
to  have  a  supply  of  straw  or  litter  handy  in  case 
of  severe  frosts,  so  that  the  plants  can  be  covered 
up  when  necessary.  According  to  the  prevailing 
climatic  conditions,  the  straw  or  litter  is  put  on  or 
taken  off,  bearing  in  mind  that  the  more  the  plants 


are  exposed  to  the  light  the  better — otherwise  they 
are  apt  to  become  pale  in  colour,  and  loose  and  flabby 
in  habit. 


The  Cos  Lettuces  are  quite  distinct  in  form  from  the 
Cabbage  varieties,  and  are  always  called  "  Romaines  " 
or  "  Chi  cons  "  in  France.  There  are  many  varieties, 
the  following  being  generally  considered  the  best  by 
Parisian  growers,  viz.  : 

1.  Plate  a  cloches  (syn.  Dwarf  Frame  Cos  Lettuce), 
an  early  variety  with  leaves  at  first  spreading. 

2.  Blonde  maraichere    (syn.   Paris  White  Cos),   an 


excellent  Cos  Lettuce,  which  hearts  up  quickly  and 
is  very  extensively  grown. 

3.  Grise    maraichere     (syn.    Paris    Market    Cos),    a 
variety   highly    esteemed   for   cloche    culture   in   the 
neighbourhood  of  Paris. 

4.  Verte  maraichere   (syn.   Green  Paris  Market),  a 
variety  not  quite  so  large  as  the  "  blonde  maraichere  " 
but  somewhat  earlier,  and  useful  either  for  cloches  or 
the  open  air. 

The  first  sowing  of  Cos  or  Romaine  Lettuces  under 
cloches  may  be  made  at  the  end  of  August,  without 
the  use  of  hot-beds.  The  soil  should  be  deeply  dug 
and  well  prepared,  and  afterwards  covered  with  an 
inch  or  two  of  fine  mould  (old  manure  and  gritty  soil 
passed  through  a  sieve).  The  surface  is  made  flat 
and  sufficiently  firm  either  by  patting  with  the  back 
of  the  spade  or  a  piece  of  board. 

Imprints  of  a  cloche  are  taken  on  the  surface  as 
many  times  as  there  are  seed-beds  to  be  sown.  The 
seeds  are  then  sown  within  the  circumference  of  each, 
and  lightly  covered  with  fine  soil,  and  gently  watered. 

Shading. — If  the  sun  is  too  hot,  the  cloches  covering 
the  little  seed-beds  should  be  covered  with  mats  to 
encourage  quick  germination.  When  this  has  taken 
place,  however,  the  mats  must  be  removed,  and  if  the 
sun  is  still  too  strong  a  little  whiting,  chalk,  or  lime 
mixed  up  in  water  may  be  smeared  over  the  cloches 
on  the  sunny  side.  The  whitening  of  the  cloches  is 
to  prevent  the  young  plants  from  being  scorched,  and 
at  the  same  time  to  allow  sufficient  light  to  percolate 
through  the  shading  so  that  the  leaves  shall  not  turn 
yellow  or  become  drawn.  A  little  milk,  or  a  piece  of 


butter,  added  to  the  whiting,  lime,  or  chalk  will 
make  the  liquid  adhere  more  firmly  to  the  glass,  and 
will  not  wash  off  with  the  first  shower  of  rain. 

The  varieties  of  Cos  Lettuce  sown  at  this  period 
are  the  "  Dwarf  Frame  Cos  "  (known  as  Plate  d  cloches) 
and  the  "  Paris  Market  Cos  "  (Grise  maraichere).  The 
last-named  kind  is  chiefly  useful  for  planting  between 
the  cloches  that  are  covering  plants  of  the  first-named. 

A  well-known  variety  of  Cos  Lettuce,  called  "  verte 
maraichere"  or  "  Green  Paris  Market  Cos/'  is  not  now 
grown  so  largely  by  the  market-gardeners  of  Paris  as 
formerly,  chiefly  because  it  has  failed  to  realise  the 
best  prices  in  market.  It  is,  however,  hardier  than 
either  Plate  a  cloches  or  the  Grise  maraichere,  and  in 
cold  or  bleak  localities  it  may  still  be  regarded  as  a 
profitable,  and  even  desirable,  crop. 

Early  in  September,  the  seedlings  will  have  developed 
two  or  three  young  leaves.  They  are  then  carefully 
pricked  out  under  cloches,  so  as  to  be  ready  for  planting 
in  their  final  quarters  in  October.  About  twenty-four 
or  thirty  young  plants  are  usually  pricked  out  under 
each  cloche,  as  shown  in  the  diagrams  (figs.  37-8). 
Early  in  October  one  Cos  Lettuce  is  planted  under  each 
cloche,  and  not  more  than  one,  if  the  very  best  plants 
and  prices  are  desired.  Air  is  excluded  for  a  few  days 
after  planting,  and  shading  from  strong  sunshine  may 
be  necessary  with  mats,  but  once  the  plants  have 
taken  hold  of  the  new  ground,  air  may  be  given  freely 
on  all  fine  days — more  than  is  usually  given  to  Cabbage 
Lettuces  at  the  same  period. 

At  the  beginning  of  November  hot-beds  should  be 
prepared  for  Cos  Lettuces  that  are  to  be  "  cloched." 
These  beds  are  made  of  the  hottest  and  best  manure, 


to  ensure  a  steady  heat  during  the  severe  weather. 
In  addition,  it  will  be  necessary,  perhaps,  to  place  dry 
manure  between  the  cloches,  and  also  to  fill  up  the 
narrow  pathways  between  the  beds.  Severe  frosts  at 
night  must  be  kept  out  by  double  or  treble  coverings 
of  mats  if  necessary. 

When  the  beds  are  prepared,  and  covered  with 
4  or  5  in.  of  nice  mould,  one 
Grise  maralchere  Cos  Lettuce,  and 
three  "Black  Gotte"  Cabbage  Let- 
tuces are  to  be  planted  under  each 
cloche,  the  Cos  in  the  centre  and 
the  Cabbage  Lettuces  at  the  points 
of  an  equilateral  triangle,  as  shown 
in  fig.  47.  These  Lettuces  are  FlG  47> 

from  seeds  sown  in  September. 

.  It  should  be  noted  that  the  variety  of  Cos  Lettuce 
known  as  "  Dwarf  Frame  Cos  "  or  "  Plate  a  cloches  "  is 
considered  unsuitable  for  planting  with  Cabbage 
Lettuces  in  the  same  way  as  "  Paris  Market  Cos  "  (Grise 
mar  dicker  e],  because  its  leaves  at  first  spread  out  so 
much  towards  the  circumference  of  the  cloche  that 
the  Cabbage  Lettuces  would  not  have  a  fair  chance  of 
developing.  Towards  maturity,  however,  the  leaves 
rise  up  to  the  top  of  the  cloche,  and  then  bend  inwards 
one  over  the  other. 

SPRING  LETTUCES. — For  spring  crops  seeds  of  Cos 
Lettuce  are  sown  in  the  latter  half  of  September,  or 
early  in  October,  in  the  open  air,  or  on  raised  sloping 
beds,  or  under  cloches.  The  plants  are  pricked  out  in 
due  course,  placing  twenty-four  or  thirty  under  each 
cloche  (see  figs.  37-8) .  After  shading  and  keeping  close 
for  a  few  days,  air  is  then  given  on  all  favourable 



occasions.  In  the  event  of  the  plants  becoming 
"  drawn,"  they  should  be  taken  up  carefully,  have  the 
old  or  dead  leaves  taken  off,  and  be  replanted  imme- 
diately on  a  fresh  bed,  placing,  however,  only  eighteen 
or  twenty  plants  under  each  cloche.  They  are  after- 
wards treated  in  a  similar  way  to  Cabbage  Lettuces 
sown  at  the  same  period. 

At  the  end  of  December  or  early  in  January  planting 



FIG.  48. — Showing  9  rows  of  Lettuces  on  same  bed.  The  arrows 
indicate  how  the  Cloches  are  moved  from  Lettuces  marked  (i)  to  those 
marked  (2)  and  afterwards  to  those  marked  (*s). 

under  cloches  or  lights  takes  place.  Under  each  cloche 
one  Cos  and  four  Cabbage  Lettuces  may  be  planted, 
as  shown  in  the  diagram  (fig.  41) ,  while  Cos  and  Cabbage 
Lettuces  may  be  planted  alternately  in  rows  in  the 
frames.  Early  in  February  these  Lettuces  are  fit  to 
gather.  When  the  beds  under  the  cloches  and  in  the 


frames  have  been  cleared,  the  surface  is  prepared  for 
a  second  crop. 

About  the  end  of  February  or  early  in  March,  if  the 
weather  is  at  all  favourable,  six  rows  of  "  Paris  Market 
Cos  "  Lettuces  (Grise  maraichere)  may  be  planted  be- 
tween the  cloches  under  each  of  which  a  Lettuce  is 
already  well  established.  It  will  be  seen  from  the 
diagram  that  each  row  of  cloches  is  flanked  by  two 
rows  of  Lettuces — one  in  front  and  one  behind — and 
that  the  exposed  Lettuces  are  planted  in  the  spaces 
between  the  cloches.  It  thus  happens  that  there  are 
nine  rows  of  Lettuces  on  each  bed — six  being  open 
and  three  under  cloches  (see  fig.  48). 

As  soon  as  the  Lettuces  marked  (i)  under  cloches 
have  been  cut,  the  glasses  thus  rendered  free  are 
placed  over  the  Lettuces  in  rows  numbered  (2)  in  the 
diagram — leaving  rows  of  Lettuces  numbered  (3),  of 
course,  uncovered  for  the  time  being.  When  the  No.  i 
Lettuces  are  mature,  which  is  generally  about  three 
weeks  after  covering,  the  cloches  are  then  available 
for  covering  the  plants  in  rows  marked  (2),  which  ripen 
about  a  fortnight  afterwards.  The  cloches  from  rows 
marked  (2)  are  then  placed  upon  the  rows  marked  *3. 

The  shifting  of  the  cloches  from  one  row  on  to 
another  is  done  easily,  and  more  expeditiously  if  the 
first  cloche  at  the  beginning  is  taken  away  to  the  other 
end  of  the  bed.  The  vacant  space  thus  left  enables  one 
to  move  the  cloches  forward  (in  what  may  be  called  a 
north-westerly  direction,  as  shown  in  the  diagram)  so 
as  to  cover  the  required  rows  marked  (2)  as  shown. 

The  last  Lettuces  from  these  beds  become  mature 
in  April,  or  early  in  May,  according  to  the  mildness  or 
otherwise  of  the  season. 


Borders. — When  planting  between  the  cloches  in 
February  or  March  in  the  way  described  above,  it  is 
also  advisable  to  plant  out  rows  of  "  Paris  Market  Cos  " 
Lettuces  (Grise  mar  dicker  e)  on  warm  sheltered  borders, 
allowing  a  foot  of  space  between  each  plant.  These 
Lettuces  are  usually  fit  for  market  at  the  end  of  April  or 

during  May.  After  plant- 
ing on  the  borders,  some 
growers  also  sow  seeds  of 
Carrots,  Radishes,  and 
Leeks  among  the  Cos  Let- 
tuces, and  keep  the  whole 
bed  well  watered  when 


Another  variety  of  Cos 
Lettuce  called  "  Paris 
White "  (Blonde  marai- 
chere]  is  extensively  culti- 
vated in  the  French 
market-gardens,  and  finds 
a  ready  sale.  It  hearts 
up  quickly,  stands  a  good  time,  and  is  of  fine  quality 

(%•  49)- 

Seeds  of  this  variety  are  usually  sown  in  the  latter 

half  of  October,  the  young  plants  being  pricked  out 
under  cloches  in  the  way  already  described.  When 
large  enough  they  are  planted  under  cloches. 

SUMMER  AND  AUTUMN  LETTUCES. — From  the  middle 
of  March  until  the  end  of  July  or  middle  of  August 
Lettuces  are  grown  in  the  open  air.  In  March  a 
sowing  of  "  Giant  Summer "  Cabbage  Lettuce  (the 
Grise  or  Grosse  brune  paresseuse)  (fig.  44)  and 
"  Paris  White  "  Cos  should  be  made,  either  under 


cloches  or  frames.  When  large  enough  about  twenty 
young  plants  may  be  put  under  each  light,  or  ten  Cos 
Lettuces  and  ten  Cabbage  Lettuces  may  be  planted 
alternately  in  the  same  space.  When  established,  air 
must  be  given  freely  during  genial  weather,  and 
attention  must  be  paid  to  watering,  so  as  to  keep  the 
plants  tender  and  growing. 

Every  second  or  third  week  from  March  until 
August,  seeds  may  be  sown  in  the  open  air  on  nicely 
prepared  soil.  The,  seedlings  are  pricked  out  and 
transplanted  in  due  course.  The  chief  cultural  details 
during  the  summer  months  consist  of  frequent  hoeings 
between  the  plants  and  a  plentiful  supply  of  water. 
If  the  plants  are  allowed  to  suffer  from  drought  they 
are  almost  sure  to  "  bolt " — i.e.  run  to  seed — during  the 
summer  months.  They  should  therefore  be  copiously 
watered  every  day  except  when  it  rains  heavily. 

It  is  as  well,  however,  to  mention  that  watering  is 
best  done  during  the  warm  weather  either  in  the 
morning  or  in  the  evening,  as  the  wetting  of  plants 
exposed  to  the  sun  scorches  the  leaves  and  spoils 
their  appearance. 

For  summer  and  autumn  Lettuces  the  secret  of 
success  appears  to  be — sow  the  seeds  thinly  ;  keep  the 
young  plants  growing  and  tender  by  copious  waterings  ; 
and  plant  out  as  early  as  possible  after  the  first  true 
leaves  form  after  the  cotyledons  or  seed-leaves.  Other 
varieties  as  well  as  those  mentioned  may  of  course 
be  sown  for  summer  and  autumn  crops. 

Tying  Cos  Lettuces. — Although  many  varieties  of 
Cos  Lettuce  hardly  require  tying  at  all,  it  generally 
pays  to  perform  the  operation,  whether  the  plants  are 
grown  under  cloches,  frames,  or  in  the  open.  It 



makes  them  swell  earlier,  and  gives  a  greater  purity 
and  crispness  to  the  hearts.  The  tying  is  done  when 
the  plants  have  made  three-fourths  of  their  growth, 
and  the  material  used  may  be  raffia  or  rye  grass.  If 
steeped  in  water  for  about  twenty  minutes  the  tying 
material  becomes  more  pliable  and  is  more  easily 
handled,  even  by  experts. 

Diseases  and  Pests. — Lettuces  under  intensive  culti- 
vation are  subject  to  attacks  from  numerous  pests  and 
diseases.  Amongst  the  most  common  insect  pests  are 
aphides,  or  green  fly,  which  attack  the  plants  at  the 
"  collar  " — the  point  where  the  leaves  and  roots  join. 
The  Cock-chafer  Grub  (Melolontha  vulgaris)  preys  upon 
the  roots.  The  soil  should  be  searched  as  soon  as  the 
leaves  of  a  plant  are  seen  to  droop,  and  very  often 
the  grub  will  be  found  at  the  base.  Wireworms  (Elater 
lineatus]  and  other  grubs  also  play  havoc  with  the 
plants  in  the  open  air,  and  can  only  be  kept  in  check 
by  the  use  of  traps  made  of  pieces  of  potato  or  carrot, 
which  should  be  examined  frequently. 

Mildew  (Peronospora  gangliformis) — the  "  meunier  " 
or  miller  of  the  French  gardener — is  one  of  the  worst 
pests  amongst  early  Lettuces,  and  where  it  is  antici- 
pated, the  young  plants,  and  also  the  surrounding  soil, 
should  be  sprinkled  with  flowers  of  sulphur.  A  weak 
solution  of  sulphate  of  copper  has  also  been  found 
useful  as  a  preventive  by  watering  the  soil  after  sowing 
the  seeds,  or  before  planting  out  the  seedlings.  The 
same  remedy  applies  to  the  rust  fungus  that  also  attacks 
Lettuces.  About  i  Ib.  sulphate  of  copper  to  100  pints 
of  water  makes  a  good  solution.  Where  young 
Lettuces  are  attacked  with  mildew,  the  wisest  course 
to  adopt  is  to  lift  the  plants  carefully  and  burn  them, 


afterwards  mending  the  rows  with  healthy  plants 
from  the  seed-bed.  If  a  little  more  sand  or  grit  were 
mixed  with  the  mould  on  the  surface,  it  is  possible 
that  mildew  would  not  be  so  prevalent  amongst  early 
Lettuces  as  it  is,  when  the  old  mould  only  is  used. 

Slugs  are  also  very  fond  of  young  Lettuces,  but  may 
be  checked  by  sprinkling  powdered  lime  and  soot  over 
the  plants  and  soil  on  several  successive  evenings  or 
early  mornings. 


The  cultivation  of  early  Melons  (Cucumis  Meld) 
forms  one  of  the  greatest  industries  in  Parisian  market- 
gardens.  Every  one  in  Paris,  apparently,  eats  Melons, 
and  when  the  fruits  are  cheap  in  August — about  zd.  or 
%d.  per  Ib. — one  may  see  great  barrow-loads  of  them 
being  hawked  in  the  street,  where  they  sell  readily. 
Early  in  the  season,  however,  similar  fruits  realise 
as  much  as  2os.  to  255.  in  Paris,  while  even  the  "  second 
choice  "  fetch  6s.  or  8s.  each. 

The  varieties  grown  are  quite  distinct  from  the 
netted  varieties  one  is  accustomed 
to  see  in  English  hothouses.  The 
French  people  prefer  what  are 
known  as  "  Cantaloup  "  Melons, 
and  the  varieties  which  find  most 
favour  with  the  market-gardeners 
of  Paris  are  those  known  as  "  Can- 
taloup Early  Frame  "  or  Prescott 
hatif  a  chassis  (fig.  50)  and  Prescott  *IG' 


fond  blanc.     The  latter  is  a  strong- 
growing  variety,  with  large  roundish  compressed  fruits, 
often  nearly  a  foot  in  diameter,  with  irregular  ribs  and 


furrows,  and  a  mottled  grey-green  and  yellowish 
appearance  when  ripe.  The  flesh  is  reddish,  and  the 
flavour  is  excellent.  A  Silver  variety  called  "  argentS  " 
(fig.  51)  is  also  much  grown.  Another  form,  Prescott 
fond  gris,  is  often  seen  in  the  French  markets. 

The"  Cantaloup"  Melon  was  introduced  from  Armenia 
to  Italy  about  the  fifteenth  century,  and  was  brought 
into  France  in  1495  by  Charles  VIII. 

Culture. — To  obtain  the  first-early  crops  of  Melons, 


seeds  are  sown  in  January.  The  plants  from  these, 
however,  require  frames  heated  with  hot-water  pipes 
as  well  as  manure,  as  the  chief  trouble  during  the 
winter  months  is  to  secure  as  much  light  as  possible 
for  the  plants. 

The  cultivation  of  early  "  Cantaloup  "  Melons  may 
well  be  recommended  to  those  market  nurserymen 
in  the  British  Islands  who  have  already  suitable  glass- 
houses well  equipped  with  hot-water  apparatus. 
If  seeds  are  sown  about  the  middle  of  November,  it 
is  possible  to  secure  nice  fruits  (which  would  probably 
command  high  prices)  about  the  end  of  March,  The 

MELONS  169 

seeds  for  this  purpose  should  be  well  ripened  and 
saved  from  fruits  of  the  preceding  year,  to  secure 
the  best  results. 

The  main  crop  in  frames  is  generally  sown  in 
February  and  March.  A  hot-bed  2-J  to  3  ft.  thick  is 
made  of  quite  fresh  and  old  manure  in  equal  propor- 
tions. It  is  trodden  down  and  made  firm  and  level, 
and  if  necessary  well  watered.  Then,  before  placing 
the  frame  upon  it,  the  bed  is  covered  with  6  to  8  in. 
of  fine  and  rich  gritty  mould  that  has  been  passed 
through  a  sieve.  The  frame  is  placed  in  position,  and 
is  banked  up  or  "  lined  "  all  round  with  a  good  layer 
of  manure  to  keep  the  cold  out  and  the  heat  constant 

When  the  heat  of  the  bed  has  sunk  to  75°  or  80°  F., 
the  seeds  are  sown  about  I  in.  apart  in  shallow  drills. 
They  are  lightly  covered  with  soil,  and  gently  watered. 
For  two  or  three  days — until  the  seeds  begin  to  sprout — 
the  frame  is  kept  close  and  covered  with  mats.  After 
germination,  the  mats  are  taken  off  during  the  day- 
time, but  placed  on  again  at  night,  and  a  little  air  is 
given  for  an  hour  or  two  each  day  when  the  weather 
is  genial. 

Should  the  temperature  within  the  frame  fall  below 
68°  or  70°  F.,  the  old  manure  outside  the  frame  must 
be  removed,  and  fresh  hot  manure  should  take  its 

At  the  end  of  fourteen  or  eighteen  days,  when  the 
seed-leaves  are  well  developed,  another  hot-bed  to 
accommodate  a  three-light  frame  should  be  made  up  in 
the  same  way  as  the  first.  The  young  Melons  are 
then  either  pricked  out  of  the  seed-bed  into  the  new 
soil  about  4  or  5  in.  apart,  making  a  hole  with  the 


finger  instead  of  a  dibber,  or,  better  still,  each  one 
is  placed  in  a  3-in.  pot,  using  a  compost  of  rich  gritty 
loam  and  a  little  leaf  soil.  When  the  young  plants 
are  being  put  into  pots,  they  should  be  handled 
carefully  so  as  not  to  injure  the  roots  too  much, 
and  the  soil  also  should  not  be  pressed  too  firmly 
around  them.  Whether  the  plants  are  pricked  out 
or  potted  up,  care  should  be  taken  in  either  case 
to  bury  the  young  stems  in  the  soil  up  to  the  seed- 

After  potting,  the  young  plants  should  be  "  plunged  " 
in  the  compost  up  to  the  rim  of  the  pots,  before  which 
they  should  have  been  watered  with  a  fine-rosed  water- 
pot  to  settle  the  soil. 

Another  method  of  treating  the  seedling  Melons  is 
as  follows :  A  3-in.  pot  is  taken  and  a  wisp  of  straw 
or  litter  is  twisted  round  it  firmly  so  as  to  acquire 
the  shape.  Pot  and  straw  are  then  placed  where  the 
young  Melons  are  to  grow — as  many  pots  and  wisps 
of  straw  being  used  as  are  necessary,  and  placed 
firmly  side  by  side.  When  finished  a  gentle  twist  and 
pull  of  the  pot  will  free  it  from  the  straw,  in  which 
a  hole  or  pocket  corresponding  to  the  form  of  the  pot 
is  left.  Each  hole  is  then  filled  with  rich  loamy 
compost,  in  which  the  young  Melon  is  planted.  The 
advantage  of  this  method  appears  to  be  that  when 
the  roots  have  absorbed  the  nourishment  from  the 
soil  surrounding  them,  they  are  then  at  liberty  to 
pierce  their  way  through  the  litter  in  search  of  more, 
whereas  in  pots  they  would  be  unable  to  travel  in  this 

Whichever  method  is  employed,  it  is  essential  to 
keep  the  lights  covered  with  mats  for  three  or  four 

MELONS  171 

days  until  the  young  plants  recover  from  the  shifting. 
Afterwards,  the  mats  are  taken  off  during  the  day,  and 
a  little  air  is  given  in  genial  weather  by  tilting  the 
lights  on  one  side  or  another,  or  at  the  top  or  bottom 
according  to  the  direction  of  the  wind — always 
taking  care  to  open  only  on  the  leeward  side. 

Pinching. — When  the  plants  have  developed  three 
or  four  leaves  (beyond  the  seed-leaves)  the  stem  is 
pinched  off  about  an  inch  or  a  little  more,  beyond  the 
second  leaf ;  and  the  seed-leaves  themselves  are  also 
suppressed,  so  that  when  decaying  they  shall  not  injure 
the  main  stem.  Pinching  should  always  be  done 
before  the  young  Melons  are  planted  out  finally,  as  it 
would  be  unwise  to  injure  the  tops  and  bottoms  of 
the  plants  at  the  same  time.  After  the  pinching 
process,  a  little  air  should  be  given,  just  for  two  or  three 
hours  in  the  middle  of  the  day  during  mild  or  sunny 
weather.  If  necessary,  slight  sprinklings  with  tepid 
water  may  also  be  given,  but  one  must  guard  against 
too  much  moisture  and  too  much  air  at  this  particular 

Planting. — When  the  two  side  branches  that  usually 
result  from  the  first  pinching  have  two  or  three  leaves 
each,  the  plants  are  then  ready  for  placing  in  their 
fruiting  quarters. 

When  several  rows  of  frames  are  being  used  for  Melon 
culture,  the  beds  are  made  in  the  following  way :  In 
the  first  row  of  frames,  the  soil  is  taken  out  about 
2ft.  wide  and  i  ft.  deep,  and  placed  outside  the  beds 
or  moved  to  the  end  where  the  last  trench  is  to  be 
made.  The  trench  is  then  filled  with  two-thirds  fresh 
manure  and  one-third  old  manure,  all  well  mixed  and 
trodden  down.  The  first  bed  being  thus  made,  the 


soil  from  the  trench  in  the  second  bed  is  spread  over  it 
evenly.  In  the  same  way  after  the  trench  in  the 
second  bed  has  been  filled  with  manure,  the  soil  from 
the  third  bed  is  spread  over  it ;  and  so  on  till  all  the 
beds  are  made. 

When  the  heat  has  sunk  to  about  75°  or  80°  Fahr., 
two  or  three  Melon  plants  are  then  placed  under  each 
light  in  the  centre  of  the  frame.  A  hole  is  scooped  out 
of  the  compost  with  the  hands  and  a  young  Melon 
plant  is  carefully  turned  out  of  its  pot  or  lifted  from  its 
position  with  a  nice  ball  of  soil.  Each  plant  is  carefully 
placed  in  the  hole  thus  made,  arranging  one  shoot  to 
point  to  the  top  of  the  frame  and  the  other  towards 
the  bottom.  Injury  to  the  roots  must  be  avoided,  and 
the  mould  should  be  packed  round  them  carefully 
by  hand. 

A  little  tepid  water  is  then  given  to  each  plant,  the 
frames  are  closed  up  and  shaded  with  mats  for  three 
or  four  days  until  the  plants  have  recovered.  When 
they  show  signs  of  new  growth,  the  mats  may  be 
taken  off  during  the  day  unless  the  sun  gets  too  hot. 
They  are,  however,  put  on  again  at  night-time  for 

Ventilation  and  Watering. — About  a  week  after 
planting  a  little  air  may  be  given,  very  little  at  first, 
but  gradually  increasing  the  amount  as  the  weather 
becomes  warmer  and  the  plants  stronger.  Attention 
must  be  paid  to  watering,  the  supply  being  regulated 
largely  by  the  vigour  of  growth  and  the  weather. 
When  the  plants  are  growing  freely  and  the  weather 
is  warm,  more  water  will  be  required  than  when  reverse 
conditions  prevail.  About  the  end  of  May,  or  during 
June,  if  the  weather  is  fine  the  lights  may  be  taken 

MELONS  173 

off  the  plants  altogether  during  the  daytime.  They 
should,  however,  be  handy  to  cover  up  immediately 
in  case  of  a  sudden  storm  or  a  dangerous  faU  in  the 

Stopping  or  Pinching. — When  the  side  shoots  (that 
were  stopped  some  time  before  planting)  are  a  foot 
or  more  in  length,  it  will  be  necessary  to  pinch  out 
the  tops  of  each  an  inch  or  so  beyond  the  third,  fourth, 
or  even  fifth  leaf,  according  to  the  vigour  of  the  shoots. 
This  stopping  causes  side  shoots  to  develop  from  each 
branch,  but  these  shoots  or  "laterals"  must^be  also 
checked  in  their  turn. 

At  this  stage  it  is  a  good  plan  to  spread  straw  or 
litter  over  the  bed  before  new  branches  develop. 

In  due  course  side  shoots  will  appear  on  the  branches 
that  were  last  "  stopped  "  by  pinching.  When  about  a 
foot  long  this  third  set  of  shoots  should  also  be  pinched 
back  a  little  above  the  third  leaf.  At  this  stage  any 
flowers  on  the  shoots  should  be  suppressed,  as  they 
are  generally  male  (or  staminate)  blossoms  and  are 
quite  useless  for  the  formation  of  Melons.  If  by 
chance  the  shoots  are  bearing  any  female  (or  pistillate) 
flowers — easily  recognised  by  the  roundish  swelling 
behind  the  corolla — these  are  also  best  destroyed,  as 
the  plants  are  still  too  young  and  lack  the  necessary 
force  to  develop  fruits  worth  having  from  these  first 

After  this  stopping  and  pinching,  as  growth  con- 
tinues, a  watch  is  kept  for  the  appearance  of  female 
flowers.  When  the  young  fruits  are  forming  behind 
these,  a  selection  of  those  best  situated  should  be  made. 
Those  on  the  main  stem  or  too  near  the  centre  of  the 
plant  should  be  removed.  Later  on,  when  the  fruits 


are  about  as  large  as  a  hen's  or  even  a  pigeon's  egg, 
two  of  the  very  best  are  selected  and  all  the  others  are 
taken  off  the  plant.  When  the  fruits  have  grown 
somewhat  larger — say  about  the  size  of  a  cricket  ball 
or  a  man's  fist — the  shoots  bearing  them  should  be 
shortened  back  an  inch  or  so  beyond  the  leaf  in  front 
of  the  fruit,  so  that  the  sap  may  be  drawn  as  far  as 
this  without  being  wasted. 

The  best  fruit  on  each  plant  is  then  decided  upon — 
whether  it  be  on  the  shoot  pointing  to  the  top  of  the 
frame  or  on  the  shoot  pointing  to  the  bottom — and  the 
other  is  suppressed.  One  fruit  only  is  thus  allowed 
to  ripen  on  each  plant,  as  it  is  considered  better  to 
have  one  large  fine  fruit  than  two  smaller  ones. 

As  each  pinching  and  stopping  of  the  shoots  causes 
a  certain  amount  of  injury,  it  is  well  to  give  the  plants 
a  slight  sprinkling  and  to  keep  them  shaded  from 
bright  sunshine  for  a  day  or  two. 

As  the  fruits  increase  in  size  and  weight  it  is  a  good 
plan  to  place  a  piece  of  glass,  slate,  or  board  beneath 
each  one  so  that  the  under-side  shall  not  become  dis- 
coloured. Uniformity  of  colour  may  also  be  secured 
by  slightly  turning  the  fruits  from  time  to  time,  or  by 
standing  them  upright  on  their  stalks. 

Occasionally  a  fruit  is  inclined  to  become  irregular 
or  deformed.  This  may  be  avoided  or  overcome  by 
making  a  vertical  and  transverse  slit  in  the  skin, 
(thus  :  -f )  in  the  place  where  there  is  a  hollow.  The 
effect  of  these  slits  is  to  draw  the  sap  to  the  injured 
portion,  thus  causing  it  to  fill  up  the  hollow  that  at 
first  seemed  imminent. 

During  the  development  of  the  fruits,  attention  is 
given  to  watering  and  ventilation.  While  the  soil 

MELONS  175 

must  be  kept  moist  and  the  plants  kept  growing 
steadily,  care  must  be  taken  not  to  give  too  much 
water ;  and  the  water  itself  should  be  tepid  or  of  the 
same  temperature  at  least  as  the  atmosphere  in  the 
frame.  Watering  is  always  best  done  in  the  morning 
— say  before  ten  o'clock — before  the  sun  becomes  too 
powerful  to  scorch  the  wetted  foliage  ;  otherwise  it 
should  be  done  late  in  the  afternoon. 

Under  certain  conditions,  as,  for  instance,  when 
the  plants  are  growing  more  vigorously  than  usual, 
and  are  inclined  to  develop  too  many  shoots  and 
leaves,  water  should  be  withheld  almost  entirely,  or 
given  only  very  sparingly.  This  causes  a  check  to 
the  growth  of  stems  and  leaves,  and  results  in  better 
development  of  the  fruits. 

Late  Crops. — For  a  later  crop  of  Melons,  seeds  should 
be  sown  in  April.  It  will  not  be  necessary,  however, 
at  that  period  of  the  year  to  go  to  the  trouble  of  making 
up  such  deep  hot-beds  as  was  necessary  for  the  earlier 
crops,  as  the  weather  is  far  more  genial,  and  the 
prevailing  temperature  is  naturally  higher.  Having 
marked  out  the  place  to  be  occupied  by  the  frames, 
a  trench  in  the  centre  about  18  in.  wide  and  i  ft.  deep 
is  taken  out  with  the  spade.  The  trench  is  then  filled 
with  good  fresh  manure  that  has  been  previously  well 
turned  over.  When  trodden  down,  it  is  covered  with 
a  layer  of  nice  mould  about  6  in.  deep  taken  from 
the  adjoining  frames  ;  and  so  on  with  each  bed  in 

Rotation. — It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  it  is  not 
good  practice  to  grow  Melons  two  years  running  on 
the  same  ground.  The  principles  of  rotation  should 
be  applied  to  intensive  cultivation,  as  the  benefits 


arising  therefrom  are  just  as  great  as  in  the  open 

Gathering  the  Fruit. — It  is  important  to  know  exactly 
when  a  Melon  fruit  is  fit  to  cut  from  the  plant.  If  left 
too  long,  or  cut  before  the  proper  time,  a  loss  may 
result  to  the  grower.  The  best  time  to  cut  the  fruit 
is  when  the  skin  commences  to  change  colour.  Fruits 
cut  at  this  time  should  be  placed  in  a  cool,  dark,  airy 
place  where  they  will  ripen  gradually  without  losing  in 
quality  or  flavour.  When  the  fruits  assume  a  dis- 
tinctly yellow  tinge  they  should  be  eaten  without 

MELONS  UNDER  CLOCHES. — The  kinds  best  suited 
for  growing  under  cloches  are  known  as  "  Chypre  "  or 
"  Kroumir,"  although  the  "  Fresco tt  "  varieties  may 
be  also  grown. 

Seeds  are  sown  early  in  April  on  hot-beds  prepared 
as  for  the  "  Prescott "  varieties  (see  p.  169),  and  in  ten 
or  fifteen  days  the  young  plants  are  fit  to  be  pricked 
out  on  beds  about  i  ft.  in  thickness.  They  may  be 
covered  either  with  frames  or  cloches.  By  the  first 
or  second  week  in  May  the  young  plants  will  be  large 
enough  to  transfer  to  their  fruiting  quarters.  A 
trench  about  2  ft.  wide  and  i  ft.  deep  is  prepared, 
and  filled  with  good  manure.  Over  this  6  or  8  in.  of 
good  rich  loam  and  leaf  soil  is  placed,  and  the  Melons 
are  carefully  planted  about  2  ft.  apart.  Each  one  is 
covered  with  a  cloche,  and  air  and  light  are  excluded 
for  several  days  until  the  plants  recover.  Shading  is 
done  either  with  mats  or  by  white-washing  the  cloches 
on  the  sunny  side. 

About  a  week  or  a  fortnight  after  planting — accord- 
ing to  the  weather  and  the  state  of  the  plant — a  little 

MELONS  177 

air  may  be  given,  gradually  raising  the  cloche  more 
and  more  on  the  tilt  as  the  plants  increase  in  size  and 

About  the  end  of  May  the  cloche  is  no  longer  large 
enough  to  hold  the  entire  plant.  The  branches  must, 
therefore,  be  allowed  to  run  outside  as  soon  as  weather 

Some  straw  or  litter  may  be  spread  over  the  beds 
before  this  to  keep  them  moist,  and  the  cloches  may 
be  raised  off  the  soil  by  placing  three  small  pots  or 
tilts  beneath  them.  In  this  way  the  main  stem  will 
be  protected  against  cold  or  against  heavy  waterings 
or  drenching  rains. 

The  tips  of  the  shoots  are  pinched  in  the  same  way  as 
recommended  for  the  "  Prescott"  varieties  (see  p.  173), 
but  eight  or  nine  leaves  may  be  left  on  the  two  branches 
that  develop  after  the  first  stem  has  been  stopped. 
The  shoots  arising  from  these  two  branches  should  be 
shortened  to  four  leaves  ;  and  the  branches  arising 
from  these,  again,  may  be  shortened  to  three  leaves. 

As  soon  as  fruits  appear  a  selection  should  be  made 
of  the  best.  Those  that  are  allowed  to  ripen  should 
be  protected  by  cloches,  or  each  fruit  at  least  should 
be  covered  with  a  large  leaf  to  protect  it  from  the 
sun.  About  the  middle  of  July  the  cloches  may  be 
removed  altogether  if  the  weather  is  fine,  and  early 
in  August  the  "  Chypre "  or  "  Kroumir "  Melons 
should  be  ripe. 

Diseases. — Melons  are  afflicted  occasionally  with 
several  diseases.  The  worst  apparently  in  French 
gardens  is  the  "  nuile  " — a  disease  which  causes  the 
leaves,  young  stems,  and  fruits  to  rot.  It  is  brought 
about  by  a  fungus  known  as  Scolecotrichum  mcloph- 



thorum,  and  is  due  to  cold,  wet,  and  erratic  seasons, 
and  is  checked  naturally  by  keeping  the  plants  warm 
and  dry  during  such  periods,  and  dusting  with  flowers 
of  sulphur.  Canker  sometimes  attacks  the  plants 
and  is  best  cured  by  cutting  away  the  injured  portions, 
and  rubbing  powdered  lime  or  ashes  on  the  wounds. 
Black  Aphis,  Red  Spider,  and  Thrips  are  best  checked 
by  frequently  syringing  the  under-surface  of  the 
leaves  with  a  quassia-chip  and  soft-soap  solution, 
or  any  of  the  advertised  insecticides. 


A  treatise  on  French  market-gardening  would  be 
scarcely  complete  without  some  reference  to  the 
French  method  of  cultivating  Mushrooms.  The  system 
of  culture  adopted  by  growers  in  the  outskirts  of  Paris 
differs  in  so  many  ways  from  that  practised  in  England, 
that  it  may  be  worth  while  recording  it  somewhat 
fully.  Last  summer  (1908)  I  had  the  pleasure  of 
meeting  a  Parisian  mushroom  grower,  and  he  very 
kindly  showed  me  not  only  his  own  "  cultures,"  but 
also  introduced  me  to  some  friends  of  his  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Montrouge. 

It  has  been  estimated  by  M.  Cure — a  writer  on  French 
market-gardening — that  10,000,000  francs  (or  £400,000) 
are  earned  by  the  cultivation  of  Mushrooms  and  the 
sale  of  old  beds  every  year  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Paris  alone.  This  is  sufficient  to  indicate  what 
an  important  industry  mushroom-growing  is,  and  also 
accounts  for  the  establishment  of  the  "  Syndicat  des 
Champignonnistes,"  a  society  formed  to  protect  the 
interests  of  mushroom-growers  in  France.  The  British 


mushroom-grower — or  "  Champignonniste,"  as  he 
ought  to  call  himself  perhaps — prefers  to  work  out  his 
salvation  on  independent,  instead  of  on  co-operative 
lines,  and  has,  therefore,  something  yet  to  learn  from 
his  French  competitor. 

In  the  neighbourhood  of  Paris  Mushrooms  are  mostly 
grown  in  underground  quarries  from  which  stone  has 


been  excavated  in  years  gone  by.  These  quarries,  or 
carrier es,  are  from  60  to  80  ft.  below  the  surface,  a 
fact  that  ensures  a  fairly  equable  temperature — from 
60°  to  70°  Fahr. — all  the  year  round.  Some  of  these 
quarries  are  entered  by  a  sloping  roadway,  but  ad- 
mission to  many  is  only  obtained  by  descending  a 
more  or  less  shaky  pole,  with  rungs  thrust  through  it 
to  make  a  ladder.  It  is  like  descending  an  old  and 


deep  well,  and  it  is  with  some  trepidation  and  curiosity 
that  the  stranger  makes  his  first  descent  in  this  way. 

Arrived  at  the  bottom  one  finds  himself  in  a  large 
opening,  from  which  what  look  like  dark  tunnels 
radiate  in  every  direction.  Small  lamps,  fixed  to  a 
stick  about  18  in.  long,  are  used  to  enable  the  workmen 
to  see  what  they  are  doing.  Colza  oil  is  now  burned 
in  these  little  lamps  in  preference  to  paraffin,  as  it 
was  found  that  the  fumes  from  the  latter  caused 
headaches  and  other  troubles  that  prevented  the 
workmen  from  attending  to  their  duties  for  more  than 
two  or  three  hours  at  a  time. 

The  tunnels  or  galleries  are  just  as  they  were  left 
by  the  quarrymen,  except  where  the  mushroom- 
growers  have  collected  irregular  masses  of  stone  and 
piled  them  up  as  supports  to  the  roof,  or  to  fill  some 
great  gap  in  the  side  walls.  The  general  appearance 
is  well  shown  in  the  accompanying  illustrations  (figs. 
52,  53),  from  The  Parks  and  Gardens  of  Paris. 

Fresh  air — being  essential,  not  only  for  human 
life  but  also  for  the  sake  of  the  Mushrooms — is  secured 
by  lighting  fires  beneath  some  of  the  openings  that 
communicate  with  the  outer  air.  This  causes  an 
upward  current  at  one  place  and  a  downward  current 
at  another,  and  in  this  way  the  air  is  constantly  kept 
in  a  fresh  state — as  in  a  coal  mine. 

It  is  no  easy  matter  traversing  these  mushroom 
galleries,  as  many  of  them  are  only  a  few  feet  wide, 
and  often  only  4  or  5  ft.  high.  The  inky  blackness 
is  only  just  dispelled  by  the  glow  from  the  lamp,  while 
one  has  to  plant  his  feet  carefully  on  the  ground  to 
avoid  slipping  on  the  wet  or  greasy  and  irregular 


The  manure  used  for  these  mushroom  beds  is  the 
best  that  can  be  got  from  the  Parisian  stables.  It  is 
brought  to  the  mouth  of  the  caves  overhead,  and 
thrown  down  to  the  bottom.  Here  it  is  mixed  and 
turned,  and  brought  into  the  proper  state  for  making 
up  the  beds.  These  run  along  the  floors  and  at  the 
base  of  the  walls  of  the  tunnels,  and  vary  in  length 
according  to  the  space  available.  Sometimes  several 
beds  run  side  by  side,  as  shown  in  fig.  53,  with  only 
a  narrow  alley  between  them  wide  enough  to  allow 


a  man  to  walk  by  putting  one  foot  in  front  of  the 
other.  Each  bed  is  generally  about  18  in.  wide  at  the 
base,  and  about  18  in.  high,  tapering  upwards  so  that 
the  top  is  only  about  4  in.  wide. 

In  such  restricted  places,  it  is  obvious  that  carrying 
or  wheeling  the  manure  from  one  place  to  another  is 
by  no  means  easy  work,  and  there  is  always  plenty  to 
do.  As  soon  as  beds  cease  to  produce  a  crop  the 
old  manure  is  taken  away  and  hauled  up  to  the  surface  ; 
and  fresh  manure  is  brought  in  for  new  beds. 


The  beds  themselves  are  made  up  by  placing  the 
prepared  manure  in  heaps  and  layers,  and  then  pressing 
it  firmly  with  the  feet  and  knees  until  the  required 
degree  of  solidity  is  secured.  All  loose  pieces  of 
manure  or  litter  are  then  "  combed  "  away  from  the 
surface  with  the  hands,  to  give  a  finished  and  tidy 

When  the  temperature  has  sunk  to  80°  Fahr.  the 
beds  are  ready  for  "  spawning."  This  work  is  generally 
done  by  a  more  experienced  workman.  He  breaks 
the  loose  cake  of  spawn  into  pieces  about  3  or  4  in. 
square,  and  pushes  each  piece  well  into  the  manure- 
bed  about  6  in.  from  the  other. 

The  beds  thus  "  spawned  "  are  then  ready  to  be 
"  cased  over  "  with  a  layer  of  soil.  The  Parisian 
growers  prefer  for  this  purpose  a  mixture  of  rich 
loamy  soil  and  mortar  rubble,  or  old  plaster  of  Paris. 
This  is  passed  through  a  half-inch  sieve,  and  is  well 
mixed  up  in  advance.  A  layer  of  this  compost,  from 
i-J-  to  2j  in.  thick,  is  then  spread  over  the  beds  with 
a  little  flat  wooden  shovel,  the  back  of  which  is  used 
to  make  the  surface  even  and  regular. 

Two  or  three  weeks  after  these  various  operations 
have  been  performed  satisfactorily,  the  young  Mush- 
rooms begin  to  appear  on  the  surface  of  the  soil.  When 
large  enough — 2  in.  or  a  little  more  across  the  tops — 
they  are  picked  and  sent  to  market. 

In  these  Parisian  caves,  owing,  no  doubt,  to  the 
equable  temperature  and  the  proper  degree  of  humidity 
in  the  atmosphere,  the  beds  will  produce  mushrooms 
for  eight  or  nine  weeks,  and  often  longer  under  very 
favourable  circumstances.  The  mushrooms  are 
picked  every  day,  and  not  once  or  twice  a  week,  as  in 


the  case  of  larger  beds  made  in  the  open  air  ;  and  as 
the  prices  vary  from  6d.  to  2s.  per  lb.,  according  to 
circumstances  and  seasons,  one  may  form  some  idea 
as  to  whether  the  industry  is  remunerative  or  not. 
At  the  same  time  the  enormous  expenses  entailed  in 
the  production  must  not  be  overlooked. 

It  sometimes  happens  that  the  beds  become  too 
dry.  They  are  then  moistened  with  tepid  water  ;  and 
it  is  necessary  to  apply  it  by  means  of  a  fine-rosed 
water-can,  so  that  the  soil  shall  not  be  broken  down 
from  the  manure  it  is  encasing. 

Diseases. — The  mushroom-growers  of  Paris  have  to 
contend  with  a  fungoid  disease  called  the  "  molle  " 
that  attacks  the  Mushrooms — sometimes  so  badly 
that  the  caves  have  to  be  abandoned  for  some  time, 
and  thoroughly  cleaned  out.  One  of  the  chief  causes 
.of  trouble,  apparently,  is  the  lack  of  fresh  air.  It  is, 
therefore,  of  the  greatest  importance  that  fires 
should  be  kept  going  constantly  so  that  the  air  in 
remote  ends  of  the  tunnels  may  be  kept  as  pure  as 

Tiny  black  flies,  like  Pear-midges  or  mites,  often 
find  their  way  into  the  mushroom  caves,  and  play 
havoc  with  the  crop  occasionally.  The  best  way  to 
get  rid  of  them  is  to  burn  sulphur  or  brimstone  in 
the  caves  before  starting  a  new  crop. 

Preparation  of  Mushroom  Spawn. — The  spawn  used 
by  the  Parisian  grower  is  quite  different  in  appearance 
from  that  used  in  England.  Here  the  spawn  is  made 
up  in  solid  bricks  or  cakes,  8  or  9  in.  long,  4  or  5  in. 
wide,  and  about  i-J-  in.  in  thickness — a  fair  quantity 
of  cow-manure  being  used  in  its  preparation.  In 
Paris,  on  the  other  hand,  cow-manure  is  never  used 


for  making  mushroom  spawn.  Only  the  best  horse- 
manure  is  used,  and  bricks  or  cakes  of  spawn  are  much 
looser  and  lighter  than  the  English  ones. 

Almost  every  grower  in  Paris  prepares  his  own 
spawn  in  the  following  way  :  In  the  month  of  July 
some  good  manure  is  turned  over  a  few  times  until 
it  becomes  short  and  crisp,  and  well  heated,  just  in 
the  same  condition  as  for  making  up  mushroom  beds. 
A  trench  about  2  ft.  wide  and  2  ft.  deep  is  then  dug 
out  in  a  shady  place — generally  in  some  position  facing 
north.  Some  small  pieces  of  spawn  are  then  placed 
about  a  foot  apart  in  two  rows  along  the  bottom  of 
the  trench  thus  made,  from  one  end  to  the  other. 
After  this  the  trench  is  filled  up  with  the  prepared 
manure,  and  this  is  trodden  down  firmly  with  the  feet. 
The  soil  taken  out  of  the  trench  is  now  spread  over 
the  manure  in  the  trench.  A  piece  of  board,  however, 
is  placed  near  the  centre  of  the  trench,  before  the 
soil  is  placed  on  top,  and  this  may  be  lifted  up  when 
it  is  desired  to  see  what  progress  the  spawn  is  making 
in  the  manure  beneath.  Three  or  four  weeks,  as  a 
rule,  are  allowed  for  the  spawn  to  spread  throughout 
the  manure  in  the  trench.  The  soil  is  then  removed, 
and  the  compressed  manure,  now  saturated  with  the 
mycelium  or  spawn  of  the  mushrooms,  is  cut  into 
flat  cakes.  These  are  spread  out  in  cool,  dry,  airy 
sheds  or  barns,  on  shelves  made  of  battens,  where 
they  remain  until  required  for  use, 

This  seems  such  a  simple  and  clean  method  of 
preparing  mushroom  spawn  that  it  is  a  wonder  it  is 
not  adopted  in  England.  It  is,  of  course,  possible  that 
as  most  of  our  Mushrooms  are  grown  in  beds  in  the 
open  air,  spawn  in  horse-manure  would  not  last 


nearly  so  long  in  our  climate  as  that  prepared  with 
the  addition  of  cow-manure. 

Another  method  of  preparing  mushroom-spawn  has 
been  adopted  by  the  Pasteur  Institute  in  Paris.  Briefly, 
it  consists  in  developing  the  spawn  or  mycelium  direct 
from  the  spores  of  the  mushroom.  The  best  speci- 
mens are  selected  and  placed  on  sheets  of  paper.  As 
the  spores  ripen  on  the  "  gills,"  or  lamellae,  of  the 
mushroom,  they  fall  on  the  surface  of  the  paper,  and  if 
undisturbed,  mark  the  outline  of  the  mushroom  cap. 
Some  manure,  nicely  prepared  as  described  above, 
and  a  few  mushroom  spores,  are  then  placed  in  a  test 
tube,  the  mouth  of  which  is  hermetically  sealed.  The 
tube  is  placed  in  a  warm  stove,  the  spores  germinate 
readily,  and  in  about  a  fortnight  the  mycelium  threads 
(or  spawn)  have  spread  throughout  the  manure  in 
the  test  tube.  "  Spawn  "  obtained  in  this  way  has 
been  used  for  the  production  of  Mushrooms,  but  it 
is  said  that  the  results,  so  far,  have  not  been  quite 
so  satisfactory  as  were  anticipated. 


Although  there  are  many  varieties  of  Onion  (Allium 
Cepa)  in  cultivation,  there  is  now  only  one  specially 
adapted  for  intensive  cultivation  as  practised  by  the 
Parisians  market-gardeners,  that  is,  the  variety 
known  as  "  Blanc  hdtif  de  Paris''  or  "  Early  White 
Paris."  Formerly  another  variety,  the  "  Jaune  des 
Vertus,"  was  extensively  cultivated,  but  has  been 
discarded  as  it  is  not  sufficiently  remunerative. 

Seeds  are  sown  in  beds  about  the  middle  of  August. 
If  sown  earlier,  or  at  least  before  August  15,  in 


Paris,  the  plants  are  liable  to  run  to  seed  instead  of 
developing  bulbs.  The  soil  should  be  deeply  dug  and 
well  prepared,  and  the  seeds  should  be  sown  fairly 
thickly,  after  the  soil  has  been  pressed  down  with  the 
feet,  especially  if  inclined  to  be  "  light  "  or  gritty. 
A  good  watering  should  be  given  after  the  seeds  have 
been  worked  into  the  soil  with  the  rake,  and  a  light 
covering  of  mould  has  been  spread  over  the  surface 
of  the  seed-bed.  This  will  hasten  germination.  As 
dry  weather  often  prevails  at  this  period,  the  seed-bed 
should  be  watered  frequently  if  necessary,  as  the 
sprouting  seeds  would  be  fatally  injured  by  a  spell 
of  drought. 

In  September  or  early  in  October  the  young  plants 
will  be  ready  for  pricking  out  of  the  seed-bed  into 
beds  of  fine  rich  and  gritty  soil.  The  plants  are 
lifted  by  passing  a  spade  horizontally  beneath  the 
roots,  so  that  these  may  not  be  injured.  The  best 
seedlings  are  then  selected  one  by  one,  and  the  inferior 
ones  are  thrown  away.  A  small  bunch  is  made  so 
that  the  baby  bulbs  are  all  level.  Then  the  roots  are 
cut  back  within  half  an  inch  or  so  of  the  bulbs,  and  the 
leaves  also  are  cut  back  leaving  only  2  or  3  in. 
—the  whole  plant  after  shortening  being  only  about 
4  in.  altogether  from  one  extremity  to  the  other. 
Onions  treated  in  this  way  are  carefully  placed  in  a 
basket  with  the  bulbs  lying  the  same  way.  When  as 
many  plants  as  are  required  for  one  day's  planting 
have  been  thus  prepared,  the  basket  containing  them 
is  immersed  in  water,  so  that  the  injured  plants  may 
be  freshened  up  somewhat.  The  Parisian  gardeners 
carry  out  this  practice  with  all  the  plants  during  hot 
weather,  even  if  it  happens  to  rain.  If  by  chance  it 

ONIONS  187 

is  not  possible  to  plant  all  the  Onions  the  same  day 
as  they  have  been  prepared,  they  are  covered  with  a 
board  on  which  a  fairly  heavy  weight  is  placed.  This 
is  to  keep  the  plants  straight ;  otherwise  they  would 
be  likely  to  curl  or  twist,  and  this  would  make  it  more 
difficult  to  plant  them,  and  also  hinder  them  becoming 
established  quickly  afterwards. 

These  blanc  hdtif  or  "  Early  White  Onions "  are 
at  first  planted  very  thickly  by  market-gardeners, 
who  allow  little  more  than  i  or  i£  in.  between 
them.  Great  care  is  taken  not  to  plant  too  deeply, 
about  f  in.  deep  being  considered  quite  deep  enough 
for  all  kinds  of  Onions.  If  planted  much  deeper, 
the  plants  do  not  develop  so  freely  or  so  well.  Some 
growers  plant  the  young  Onions  in  rows,  allowing 
3  or  4  in.  from  plant  to  plant.  In  either  case  they 
are  not  allowed  to  reach  their  full  size,  but  are  sold 
as  soon  as  the  bulbs  are  an  appreciable  size.  In  this 
wray  the  Onions  are  cleared  as  quickly  as  possible  and 
the  soil  becomes  available  for  another  crop. 

During  October  seedling  Onions  may  be  pricked 
out  in  the  way  described,  but  if  the  work  is  not  finished 
by  the  first  week  in  November,  it  is  advisable  to  leave 
the  plants  in  the  seed-beds  until  the  following  February, 
as  the  winter  frosts  would  be  almost  sure  to  kill 
transplanted  seedlings. 

In  the  event  of  severe  weather  setting  in  before  the 
plants  have  taken  a  good  hold,  it  is  advisable  to  protect 
them  at  night  with  a  sprinkling  of  straw  or  litter, 
taking  this  off  as  early  as  possible  in  the  morning. 
About  the  end  of  April,  or  early  in  May,  these  autumn 
sown  Onions  are  fit  for  market,  coming  into  use  at  the 
same  time  as  the  "  Ox-Heart  "  Cabbages  (see  p.  92). 


If  a  further  supply  of  early  Onions  is  required,  or 
if  the  rows  have  to  be  "  made  up  "  where  plants  of 
the  previous  sowing  have  failed,  seeds  are  sown  again— 
to  provide  for  these  contingencies — in  January  and 
February.  At  this  season  the  seeds  are  sown  on  hot- 
beds under  lights,  or  under  cloches,  and  sometimes 
between  other  crops.  The  plants  will  be  ready  some- 
what later  than  those  sown  in  August,  but  they  will 
make  a  good  succession  crop. 

Many  growers  also  sow  seeds  of  the  "  Early  White  " 
(blanc  hdtif)  Onion  at  intervals  from  February  to 
June  in  the  open  air.  The  beds  are  dug,  manured, 
and  prepared  in  the  usual  way,  and  after  the  seeds 
have  been  sown  a  layer  of  nice  rich  mould  is  spread 
over  the  surface  of  each  bed.  When  the  Onions  appear 
they  are  "  thinned  out  "  in  due  course,  if  too  thick. 
Afterwards  they  are  watered  well  from  time  to  time 
when  necessary,  according  to  the  state  of  the  weather. 
As  soon  as  the  young  bulbs  begin  to  swell,  they  are 
almost  ready  for  pulling,  as  it  does  not  pay  to  leave 
them  to  mature  on  ground  for  which  high  rents  have 
to  be  paid.  An  excellent  little  Onion  for  spring  sowing 
is  the  blanc  tres  hdtif  de  la  Reine  (Early  White  Queen). 
When  sown  in  March  it  is  ready  in  May,  but  as  it  is 
little  more  than  an  inch  when  fully  developed,  it  is 
grown  more  in  private  than  in  market  gardens. 


There  are  now  many  varieties  of  small  Radishes 
(Raphanus  sativus)  suitable  for  cultivation  either  in 
the  open  air  or  on  hot-beds  with  other  crops.  They 
vary  in  colour  from  the  purest  white  to  the  deepest 
crimson,  passing  through  light  and  dark  rose,  and 


almost  scarlet.  Growers  for  market,  however,  gener- 
ally confine  themselves  to  a  few  well-established 
varieties.  For  early  crops  the  Turnip  or  Round  red 
forms — known  to  us  as  "  Forcing  Scarlet  "  Radishes- 
are  favoured  (fig.  54).  These  are  followed  with  the 
"  French  Breakfast  "  and  white-tipped  kinds  (fig.  55), 
and  after  these  it  really  matters  little  which  variety  is 

The  first  sowing  of  Radishes  is  made  about  the 
middle  of  September.     Raised  sloping  beds  are  pre- 


pared  as  described  at  p.  12,  and  the  seeds  are  then 
sown  broadcast  and  covered  with  about  an  inch  of 
fine  gritty  soil.  At  night-time  if  frosts  are  likely  to 
occur,  mats  or  litter  are  placed  over  the  beds  for 
protection,  and  taken  off  each  morning  as  early  as 
possible.  Radishes  from  this  sowing  are  generally 
fit  to  pull  about  the  end  of  November  or  early  in 

In  December  Radishes  (round  red  varieties)  are 
sown  under  lights  on  nicely  prepared  soil,  and  often 
among  other  crops  such  as  Carrots,  Cauliflowers, 
Lettuces,  and  Leeks — all  of  which  require  air  to  be 
given  in  the  same  way  as  the  Radishes. 


When  sown  with  other  crops,  it  is  better  to  sow 
Radishes  in  little  patches  between  them  rather  than 
broadcast.  Each  little  patch  will  yield  a  dozen  or 
two  of  Radishes,  which,  as  they  develop  rapidly,  do 
not  harm  either  Carrots,  Lettuces,  or  Cauliflowers. 

Early  in  February,  or  at  the  end  of  January, 
Radishes  are  sown  again  on  open  beds — i.e.  beds  not 
covered  with  lights.  These  beds  are  made  up  of 


manure  12  to  15  in.  deep,  on  the  surface  of  which 
about  4  in.  of  fine  mould  is  spread.  The  seeds  are 
covered  with  about  an  inch  of  soil,  and  mats  or  litter 
are  afterwards  spread  over  them  to  hasten  germination. 
After  this,  as  much  light  as  possible  must  be  given, 
but  if  frost  is  anticipated  at  night,  the  beds  must  be 
protected  with  mats  or  litter.  The  Rose  variety  with 
white  tips,  "  French  Breakfast,"  and  the  "  Early  Red 
Scarlet  "  are  the  best  varieties  for  sowing  on  beds. 

At  this  period  thick  sowings  of  Radishes  may  also 
be  made  on  warm  sheltered  borders,  and  protected 
from  frosts  with  mats  or  litter  when  necessary.  Sowings 


in  the  open  air  may  be  made  fortnightly  until  about 
the  middle  of  September  or  October — according  to 
the  season.  It  is  not  essential  to  sow  them  in  beds 
by  themselves.  The  spaces  between  the  rows  of 
Lettuces  or  Cauliflowers  may  be  utilised  when  these 
plants  are  still  small  and  not  too  close  together. 

To  secure  nice  Radishes,  they  should  be  sown  in 
rich  moist  soil,  and  during  the  hot  summer  days  a 
good  watering  in  the  morning  and  in  the  evening  will 
be  highly  beneficial.  As  Radishes  mature  in  from 
twenty-five  to  thirty  days  after  sowing,  one  may  judge 
when  they  are  to  be  sown  on  any  vacant  spaces. 

In  sowing  Radishes  there  is  one  important  point  to 
bear  in  mind  if  nice  roots  are  desired,  and  that  is  that 
the  seeds  should  be  sown  somewhat  deeper  than  most 
other  small  seeds.  In  other  words,  they  should  be 
covered  more  thickly  with  fine  mould — say  about  an 
inch  thick — to  encourage  them  to  develop  regularly 
and  symmetrically.  Being  embedded  in  the  soil  in 
this  way  the  skin  retains  its  colour,  and  the  Radishes 
do  not  become  hard,  hot  and  woody,  as  they  are  likely 
to  do  when  the  seeds  are  only  slightly  covered  with  soil. 

It  is,  perhaps,  scarcely  necessary  to  mention  that 
all  early  sowings  of  Radishes  in  the  open  air  require 
protection  from  the  depredation  of  birds,  by  means 
of  fish-netting,  black  cotton  or  other  devices. 

BLACK  RADISHES. — In  the  Paris  markets  a  black- 
skinned  Radish  is  frequently  seen.  The  roots  are 
something  like  the  pointed  "  Croissy "  Turnip  in 
shape,  and  look  as  if  they  had  been  rolled  in  dry  soot. 
They  are  about  6  in.  long,  tapering  to  a  fine  tip. 
The  two  varieties  of  Black  Radish  best  known  are 
"  Round  Winter  "  and  the  "  Long  Winter." 



Salsafy  (Tragopogon  porri  folium]  and  Scorzonera 
(Scorzonera  hispanica) — two  members  of  the  Chicory 
and  Dandelion  family — now  find  their  way  into  the 
English  markets  in  small  quantities,  and  are  valued 
chiefly  for  their  long  thickish  roots.  These  are  white 
in  Salsafy  and  blackish  in  Scorzonera.  The  former 
is  a  biennial,  and  in  growth  has  long  narrow  grey- 
green  leaves  with  a  whitish  midrib,  and  produces 
violet  flowers.  Scorzonera,  on  the  other  hand,  is  a 
perennial,  has  broad  lance-shaped  oblong  leaves,  and 
bright  yellow  flowers. 

Both  plants  are  cultivated  in  almost  precisely  the 
same  way,  and  if  the  soil  has  been  deeply  dug  and 
well  manured  in  advance,  nice  shapely  roots  are 
produced.  In  March  or  ApriJ  the  seeds  are  sown  in 
shallow  drills  about  a  foot  apart.  When  the  seedlings 
are  about  2  in.  high,  they  should  be  thinned  out 
about  4  in.  apart.  During  the  season  growth  is 
encouraged  by  frequent  hoeings  and  copious  supplies 
of  water,  especially  in  hot,  dry  weather.  This  will 
prevent  the  Salsafy  plants  running  to  seed,  and 
thus  failing  to  produce  roots. 

About  October  the  roots  are  lifted,  and  if  stored 
in  sand  or  dry  soil  will  remain  fit  for  use  during  the 
winter  months.  As  Scorzonera  is  a  hardier  plant  than 
Salsafy,  its  roots  may  be  left  in  the  soil,  giving  pro- 
tection if  necessary  from  severe  frosts  with  litter,  etc. 

For  market  purposes  the  roots  of  both  Salsafy  and 
Scorzonera  are  tied  up  into  neat  bundles.  They  are 
used  in  a  boiled  state,  and  those  of  Salsafy  are  popu- 
larly known  as  "  Vegetable  Oyster." 

SORREL  193 


It  is  astonishing  the  amount  of  Sorrel  (Rumex 
Acetosa)  that  is  grown  and  consumed  in  Paris.  In  the 
markets  large  bundles  of  bright  green  leaves  are  always 
seen,  and  women  are  often  engaged  in  picking  them 
off  and  grading  them  according  to  size  and  freshness. 
For  over  five  centuries  Sorrel  has  .been  a  favourite  dish 
with  the  French,  and  yet  it  is  scarcely  known  in  British 

There  are  several  varieties,  but  those  with  large 
juicy  leaves  are  the  best.  Those  known  as  "  large  de 
Belleville"  (or  "  Broad-leaved  Belleville  "),  "Lyons," 
and  "  blonde  de  Sarcelles "  are  grown,  as  well  as 

A  variety,  however,  called  "  Maiden "  or  Dutch 
Sorrel  (Oseille  vierge}  has  become  noteworthy.  It  is 
supposed  to  be  a  form  of  Rumex  montanus  instead  of 
R.  Acetosa,  and  has  large  round  leaves.  As  it  rarely 
flowers  or  seeds,  the  popular  name  "  Maiden  "  (vierge) 
has  been  given  to  it.  It  grows  in  strong  tufts  and 
continues  to  produce  luscious  leaves  for  many  years. 
It  is  generally  propagated  by  dividing  the  tufts,  while 
the  other  kinds  of  Sorrel  are  raised  from  seeds  when 

Early  Sorrel  can  only  be  secured  by  forcing  estab- 
lished clumps  in  hot-beds.  These  are  prepared  early 
in  November,  with  a  temperature  of  55°  to  60°  Fahr. 
After  placing  the  frames  in  position  a  couple  of  inches 
of  mould  is  spread  over  the  surface.  The  Sorrel  plants 
are  then  lifted  from  the  open  ground  with  a  fork,  and 
after  the  crowns  have  been  cleaned  from  old  leaves 



and  stems,  they  are  placed  side  by  side  in  the  frames, 
putting  the  larger  or  taller  clumps  near  the  top,  and 
the  smaller  or  shorter  at  the  bottom.  Some  fine 
rich  gritty  mould  is  then  worked  in  between  and 
slightly  over  the  crowns,  and  is  settled  down  with  a 
gentle  watering.  After  growth  commences  all  that 
is  necessary  is  to  give  occasional  moistenings  with 
tepid  water,  and  ventilation  according  to  the  state  of 
the  weather. 

When  the  leaves  are  large  enough  they  should  be 
picked  by  hand  every  third  or  fourth  day — the  largest 
always  being  picked  first.  About  eight  days  after 
placing  in  the  hot-bed,  the  plants  commence  to  yield, 
and  will  continue  to  produce  tender  leaves  for  a  month 
or  six  weeks,  according  to  their  vigour.  When  the 
plants  cease  to  develop  leaves  they  may  be  thrown 
away ;  others  are  then  lifted  and  placed  in  their 

Another  method  of  obtaining  early  Sorrel  is  to  force 
the  plants  where  they  are  growing  instead  of  lifting 
them  and  placing  in  hot-beds.  The  Sorrel  is  planted 
in  beds  wide  enough  to  take  the  lights  and  frames 
generally  in  use.  The  plantation  should  have  been 
made  originally  in  deeply  dug  or  trenched  and  heavily 
manured  soil.  As  a  rule  each  Sorrel  bed  has  five 
rows  of  plants — the  two  outer  ones  being  about  6  in. 
from  the  margins  and  the  others  equidistant  from 
each  other. 

In  the  first  half  of  November  the  plants  are  cleared 
of  old  leaves  and  stems,  and  the  frames  are  placed 
over  them.  About  half  an  inch  of  rich  gritty  soil  is 
then  spread  uniformly  over  the  crowns,  and  well 
watered  in  before  the  lights  are  put  on. 

SORREL  195 

The  pathways  between  the  beds  are  afterwards  dug 
out  8  to  10  in.  deep,  the  soil  being  placed  at  the  end 
of  the  rows  until  it  is  again  required.  The  trenches 
thus  made  in  the  pathways  are  filled  with  three  parts 
of  fresh  manure  to  one  part  of  old  manure  or  leaves. 
The  heat  generated  from  the  manure  in  the  pathways 
causes  the  Sorrel  plants  to  grow,  and  forcing  has 
commenced.  Watering  with  tepid  water  occasionally, 
and  giving  more  or  less  air  according  to  the  state  of 
the  weather,  constitute  the  principal  points  to  which 
attention  must  be  given. 

About  fifteen  or  eighteen  days  after  the  manure  has 
been  placed  between  the  frames,  leaves  will  be  ready 
to  pick  and  will  continue  to  appear  for  about  two 
months.  Sorrel  beds  forced  in  this  way  will  give  a 
fair  yield  the  second  year,  but  afterwards  the  plants 
.do  not  possess  sufficient  vitality  to  give  a  reasonable 

When  the  crop  is  finished,  the  manure  is  removed 
from  the  trenches,  and  these  are  refilled  with  the 
soil  taken  from  them  at  first,  after  which  the  frames 
and  lights  are  used  for  other  purposes,  and  the  Sorrel 
bed  is  again  open  to  the  air. 


Seakale  (Crambe  maritima) — the  "  Chou  mar  in  "  of 
the  French  growers — although  now  so  extensively 
cultivated  by  market-gardeners  in  England  for  the 
blanched  leaf-stalks,  is  curiously  enough  not  yet  a 
great  article  of  commerce  in  France,  owing  probably 
to  the  difficulty  in  securing  sufficiently  large  tracts  of 
land,  that  are  so  necessary  to  raise  a  quantity  of 


plants  for  forcing  purposes.  The  English  method  of 
cultivation  may  be  briefly  described  as  follows  : 

An  open  sunny  situation  is  essential,  and  the 
soil  for  Seakale  should  be  trenched  2  to  3  ft.  deep 
in  autumn  and  be  heavily  manured.  Planting  is 
usually  done  early  in  March.  Pieces  of  the  thick  roots 
4  in.  to  6  in.  long,  called  '  thongs  '  by  gardeners,  are 
cut  from  the  old  root-stalks  in  March,  and  are  planted 
12  in.  apart  in  rows  ij  to  2  ft.  apart.  This  operation 
may  be  performed  annually  ;  but  if  plants  are  to 
remain  for  a  few  years  in  the  same  place,  it  will  be 
necessary  to  give  more  space  so  as  to  permit  the  free 
use  of  the  hoe  or  fork  between  the  rows,  and  also  to 
afford  more  air  and  light.  Instead  of  raising  plants 
from  cuttings  of  the  roots  in  this  way,  seeds  may  also 
be  sown  in  drills  i4-  to  2  ft.  apart,  afterwards  thinning 
the  seedlings  out  so  as  to  leave  about  a  foot  between 
each  plant,  In  autumn,  when  the  large  grey-green 
wavy  leaves  have  decayed,  it  may  be  advisable  to  cover 
the  crowns  with  a  little  heap  of  ashes  or  sand,  or  litter. 

Blanching. — This  operation  consists  in  excluding 
the  light  from  the  young  shoots  when  they  commence 
to  grow  in  spring. 

A  box,  large  pot,  hand-light,  or  even  a  heap  of 
leaves  placed  over  each  crown  will  serve  the  purpose 
in  the  open  air,  but  ashes  or  sand  over  the  crowns 
should  be  removed  first.  When  the  shoots  are  long 
enough,  a  little  light  may  be  given  just  to  give  a  tinge 
of  colour  to  the  tips.  Where  one  has  a  warm  green- 
house or  moist  hot-bed,  the  roots  may  be  lifted  from 
December  to  February,  and  placed  in  the  warmth 
and  in  the  dark.  In  this  way  blanched  shoots  can 
be  secured  very  early  in  the  season. 


Market-gardeners  in  England  commence  forcing  Sea- 
kale  from  the  end  of  October  till  the  end  of  February. 
The  best  and  earliest  crowns  are  first  selected  and 
planted  side  by  side  in  beds  4  to  5  ft.  across,  and 
heated  underneath  by  hot -water  pipes.  The  roots  are 
embedded  in  the  soil  to  the  tops,  and  after  planting 
receive  a  good  drenching  with  water  to  settle  the 
soil  round  them.  They  are  afterwards  covered  with 
clean  strawy  litter  to  a  depth  of  12  or  18  in.,  and 
in  severe  weather  mats  are  placed  overhead  on  cross- 
bars. From  fourteen  to  twenty-one  days — according 
to  the  time  of  year — are  required  to  produce  the 
leaf-stalks.  The  litter  is  then  taken  off,  and  all  the 
crowns  that  are  ready  are  taken  from  the  bed,  and 
prepared  for  market.  As  soon  as  one  set  of  crowns 
is  finished,  others  are  ready  to  take  their  place,  and 
thus  a  constant  supply  is  kept  up  till  the  plants  forced 
in  the  open  air  begin  to  yield. 

French  growers  plant  the  Seakale  roots  in  beds 
the  same  width  as  the  frames  generally  in  use  for 
forcing  Carrots,  Radishes,  Lettuces,  etc.  The  beds 
are  thus  4  ft.  5  in.  wide,  and  have  an  alley  or  path- 
way between  them.  Five  furrows  about  4  in.  deep 
are  drawn,  and  the  plants  are  placed  in  them  at  the 
end  of  March  or  early  in  April,  the  two  outer  rows 
being  about  7  or  8  in.  from  the  margin.  This  allows 
about  twenty-five  "  crowns "  to  each  light.  After 
planting,  the  crowns  are  freely  watered  when  necessary, 
and  the  soil  which  had  been  drawn  up  in  little 
rdges  when  making  the  furrows  or  drills  is  gradually 
washed  down,  and  eventually  covers  the  crowns. 
Towards  the  end  of  June  or  early  in  July  the 
waterings  cease,  as  the  plants  will  be  then  established 



and  well  furnished  with  their  large  wavy  grey-green 

About  the  end  of  October  or  early  in  November, 
the  dead  and  dying  leaves  are  removed,  and  the  beds 
are  cleaned  up  and  hoed  lightly,  preparatory  to  having 
the  frames  placed  over  them.  The  pathways  are  also 
dug  out  10  or  12  in.  deep,  some  of  the  soil  being  placed 
in  the  frames  for  "  earthing  up  "  the  Seakale  crowns, 
the  remainder  being  placed  close  at  hand  for  filling 
the  trenches  after  the  forcing  is  finished. 

When  the  temperature  in  the  frames  falls  to  60° 
Fahr.,  the  trenches  between  the  frames  are  filled  with 
good  manure.  Each  crown  is  covered  with  a  heap  of 
soil  about  6  to  7  in.  deep,  and  the  entire  portion  to  be 
forced  is  covered  with  dry  leaves  or  straw  to  hasten 
vegetation.  About  a  month  afterwards  the  first 
shoots  may  be  cut,  taking  care  to  sever  each  one  about 
half  an  inch  above  the  "  collar  "  of  the  plant.  A 
second  crop  may  be  secured  from  the  same  plants  by 
covering  the  crowns  again,  and  treating  in  the  same 
way.  After  the  second  forcing  the  crowns  are  of 
little  use,  and  should  be  destroyed.  The  frames  and 
old  manure  are  then  removed,  and  the  pathways  are 
filled  up  again  with  soil. 

Another  method  of  forcing  Seakale  is  to  lift  the 
plants  in  October  or  November,  and  place  them  side 
by  side  on  a  manure  bed  giving  a  heat  of  60°  to  65° 
Fahr.,  which  has  been  covered  with  about  6  in. 
of  mould  before  the  frames  are  placed  on  it.  About 
sixty-four  crowns  are  thus  forced  under  each  light, 
and  the  frames  are  "  lined "  with  manure  in  the 
way  described  above,  to  secure  a  steady  temperature. 
The  plants  are  given  a  gentle  watering  after  some 


nice  rich  sandy  mould  has  been  worked  in  between 
them,  and  also  over  them  to  a  depth  of  2  or  3  in. 
A  covering  with  straw,  leaves,  or  litter  completes 
the  work,  and  shoots  may  be  cut  at  the  end  of 
eighteen  or  twenty  days. 

Seakale  may  also  be  forced  in  warm  cellars  at  the 
same  period.  The  crowns  are  lifted,  cleaned,  and 
planted  on  a  few  inches  of  rich  mould,  and  are  after- 
wards covered  2  or  3  in.  deep  with  the  same 
compost.  More  or  less  water  is  necessary,  according 
to  the  dryness  or  humidity  of  the  atmosphere,  and 
at  the  end  of  three  or  four  weeks  shoots  will  be 
ready  for  cutting. 


The  Spinach  (Spinacia  oleracea)  is  an  annual  plant, 
native  of  Persia,  whence  it  was  introduced  to  Spain 
in  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  by  the  Arabs. 
According  as  to  whether  the  seeds  (really  the  "  fruits  ") 
are  "prickly"  or  "smooth,"  two  distinct  kinds  of 
Spinach  are  recognised,  each  with  several  varieties — 
all  highly  valued  for  their  soft  bright  green  leaves. 

At  one  time  French  gardeners  used  to  grow  Spinach 
on  hot-beds,  on  which  young  plants  were  pricked  out 
about  4  in.  apart  in  November,  so  as  to  be  ready  for 
gathering  from  December  to  March.  This  system  of 
forced  cultivation  is,  however,  no  longer  adopted  or 
rarely  practised.  I  have,  however,  seen  young  plants 
lifted  from  the  open  ground  in  February  or  early  in 
March.  All  the  leaves  were  cut  off,  and  the  plants 
thus  mutilated  were  placed  in  frames  between  Gotte 
Lettuces  that  were  nearing  maturity  on  the  top  of 


Early  Carrots.  Spinach  grown  in  this  way  branches 
out  a  good  deal,  and  produces  fine  foliage  in  about 
three  weeks  after  planting.  The  entire  plant  is 
pulled  up  when  ready,  and  is  fit  for  sale  when  the 
roots  have  been  cut  off.  It  realises  a  much  higher 
price  than  open-air  Spinach  at  the  same  period. 

About  the  middle  of  August  seeds  of  the  variety 
known  as  "  Monstrous  Viroflay "  may  be  sown  on 
nicely  prepared,  but  not  deeply  dug,  soil,  either  in 
drills,  9  to  12  in.  apart  and  about  2  in.  deep,  or 
"  broad-cast  "  at  the  rate  of  about  i  Ib.  of  seed  to 
160  square  yards — or  a  little  over  5  poles  or  "  rods  " 
of  ground.  After  sowing,  the  soil  should  be  trodden 
down  firmly  and  raked  over.  To  hasten  germination, 
a  good  watering  may  be  given,  especially  if  the  soil 
is  inclined  to  be  dry,  or  the  seeds  may  have  been 
soaked  in  water  three  or  four  times  before  sowing. 
Under  favourable  conditions  Spinach  leaves  may  be 
picked  from  this  first  sowing  about  the  end  of  Sep- 
tember, taking  care  that  only  the  largest  leaves  at  the 
bottom  are  picked  first,  and  by  hand. 

Another  sowing  of  Spinach  may  be  made  in  October 
for  gathering  in  spring,  using  the  varieties  known  as 
"  Flanders  "or  "  Prickly  Long  Standing  "  on  this 

Some  growers  sow  Spinach  in  December  amongst 
Carrots  in  frames,  picking  the  leaves  with  care  when 

About  the  middle  of  February  Spinach  may  be 
sown  at  intervals  of  two  or  three  weeks,  until  the 
end  of  July.  The  early  sowings  should  be  made  on 
warm  sunny  borders,  while  the  later  ones  in  summer 
are  best  on  north  borders,  or  between  rows  of  other 


vegetables  which  will  shade  them  from  strong  sun- 

If  the  plants  show  signs  of  running  to  seed  during 
the  summer  months,  they  are  best  destroyed,  and 
replaced  with  other  crops. 

The  chief  care  with  Spinach  is  to  give  the  plants 
plenty  of  water,  either  morning  or  evening,  during 
dry  weather. 


Turnips  (Brassica  napus)  are  now  grown  as  a  forced 
or  "  primeur  "  crop  on  hot-beds  more  than  formerly. 
Early  in  January  a  bed  is  made  up  to  give  a  tem- 
perature about  70°  to  80°  Fahr.  The  surface  is  then 
covered  with  a  layer,  about  7  or  8  in.  thick,  of  rich 
mould,  made  up  of  two  parts  of  old  manure  and  one 
part  of  rich  loamy  soil  passed  through  a  sieve. 

The  seeds  are  usually  sown  neither  broad-cast  nor 
in  drills,  but  in  small  holes  made  in  the  compost  with 
the  finger.  About  every  6  in.  a  hole  i  in.  deep 
is  made  with  the  finger,  and  into  each  one  or  two  Turnip 
seeds  are  dropped — making  about  eighty  to  one 
hundred  to  every  light. 

The  surface  is  then  levelled  with  a  piece  of  wood 
and  lightly  watered,  after  which  mats  are  spread 
over  the  lights  until  germination  has  taken  place — 
generally  in  four  or  five  days. 

As  soon  as  the  first  leaves  after  the  seed-leaves  have 
developed,  the  young  Turnips  must  be  thinned  out, 
so  that  only  one  plant  is  left  in  each  little  hole.  About 
a  month  or  six  weeks  after  sowing,  that  is,  about  the 
middle  of  February,  the  lights  are  taken  away  to 



place  over  a  second  sowing  of  Turnips.  The  first 
crop  must  then  be  protected  during  the  night  with 
mats  thrown  over  the  frames.  If,  however,  the 
weather  at  this  period  is  very  severe,  it  is  safer  to  leave 
the  lights  some  time  longer  until  all  danger  is  over. 

To  ensure  active  growth  in  the  frames,  the  young 
Turnips  should  be  watered  frequently — almost  every 
day — and  at  the  same  time  abundance  of  air  must 
be  given  on  all  favourable  occa- 
sions by  tilting  up  the  lights  on 
the  leeward  side. 

In  about  seven  or  eight  weeks 
after  sowing  the  seeds,  and  treat- 
ing as  above  described,  the  young 
Turnips  are  fit  to  pull. 

About  the  middle  of  February 
another  sowing    of  Turnips  may 
be  made  on  a  somewhat    cooler 
bed  than   the   first   crop,  and   in 
the  same  way.     If  the  weather  is 
favourable,   the   lights   from    the 
first  crop  may  now  be  taken  off, 
and  placed  over  the  second  just  sown.     These  lights 
in   turn   are  taken  off  the  second  crop  in  due  course 
and  placed  over  the  third  sowing  of  Turnips. 

A  fourth  sowing  of  Turnips  may  be  made  about  the 
middle  of  April  on  the  bed  from  which  the  second 
crop  has  been  gathered,  the  same  set  of  lights  being 
used  for  protection  successively.  It  will  be  noted 
that  only  two  different  beds  are  used  for  the  four  crops. 
When  these  are  cleared,  the  beds  may  be  utilised 
for  the  culture  of  Melons. 

Making  holes  with  the  finger  is  rather  a  primitive 

FIG.  56. — "  MARTEAU  " 


method,  and  has  been  discarded  by  some  growers. 
These  have  a  frame  made  exactly  the  size  of  each 
light.  As  many  cross-pieces  as  there  are  to  be  rows 
of  Turnips  are  fixed  to  these  frames,  and  in  each 
cross-piece  as  many  pegs  are  fixed  as  there  are  to  be 
Turnips  in  a  row.  All  that  is  necessary  is  to  press 
the  frame  with  the  pegs  downwards  upon  the  pre- 


pared  soil,  and  each  peg  makes  a  hole  in  which  the 
Turnip  seeds  are  then  sown. 

The  variety  of  Turnip  favoured  by  the  Parisian 
grower  is  called  "  Marteau  "  or  "  Half -long  Vertu  " 
(fig.  56),  owing  to  its  quick  growth  and  excellent 
quality.  It  is  the  variety  par  excellence  for  the  first 
early  crops,  and  Parisian  gardeners  have  made 
thousands  of  pounds  by  its  cultivation.  The  "  Half- 
long  White  Forcing  "  Turnip  (fig.  57)  is  also  an  early 
variety  well  suited  for  frame  culture.  "  Red  Flat 


Milan  "  and  "  White  Flat  Milan  "  are  suitable  either 
for  early  crops  under  lights  or  for  later  crops  in  the 
open  air. 

One  of  the  most  popular  Turnips  for  market  is  the 
"  Long  Vertu "  or  "  Pointed  Croissy,"  of  which 
large  quantities  are  sold  in  the  Paris  markets  during 
the  summer  months.  Indeed,  it  was  the  only  variety 
I  saw  in  the  market  in  August. 



UNDER  ordinary  circumstances  it  would  be  more 
convenient  to  commence  a  calendar  of  operations  in 
January.  With  intensive  methods  of  cultivation, 
however,  it  is  somewhat  different.  The  month  of 
August  is  generally  recognised  as  the  beginning  of 
the  cultural  year  for  the  intensive  cultivator,  hence 
it  is,  therefore,  more  convenient  to  begin  the  calendar 
in  this  volume  at  that  period. 

Under  each  month  in  the  year — from  August  in  one 
year  to  July  in  the  following — the  principal  operations, 
as  detailed  in  the  preceding  pages,  have  been  noted 
briefly,  merely  as  reminders  to  the  grower  what  ought 
to  be  done  in  each  month.  It  is  important  that  seeds 
should  be  sown,  pricked  out,  or  transplanted  at  the 
proper  time,  otherwise  the  crops  may  mature  too 
late  to  be  of  any  particular  value,  especially  to  the 
commercial  grower.  Although  Paris  is  somewhat 
farther  south  than  London  by  about  3  degrees,  there 
is  really  very  little  difference  in  the  climatic  con- 
ditions. As  temperature,  however,  is  an  all-important 
point  in  gardening,  and  especially  when  conducted 



on  intensive  principles,  it  has  occurred  to  me  that  it 
might  be  useful  to  the  grower  to  have  some  idea  of 
the  average  temperature  of  the  air  and  the  soil  for 
each  month  of  the  year.  I  have,  accordingly,  ex- 
tracted this  information  from  Lindley's  Theory  and 
Practice  of  Horticulture,  the  figures  given  being  those 
taken  for  ten  consecutive  years  in  the  Royal  Horti- 
cultural Society's  late  Gardens  at  Chiswick  some  years 
ago.  The  mean  air  temperatures  at  Paris  have 
also  been  included  for  the  purpose  of  comparison. 
It  will,  of  course,  be  remembered  that  places  farther 
north  or  south  than  London  will  have  different  mean 
temperatures,  and  it  would  be  well  for  growers  to  find 
them  out  and  place  them  in  a  conspicuous  place  in 
their  gardens  for  future  reference.  So  far  as  the 
rainfall  is  concerned,  there  is  very  little  difference 
between  that  of  Paris  and  London — the  average 
rainfall  in  the  former  being  about  23  in.,  and  25  in.  in 
the  latter.  Here  again,  of  course,  great  variation  is 
to  be  found,  as  more  rain  generally  falls  on  the  western 
side  of  Great  Britain  than  on  the  eastern. 

By  the  kindness  and  courtesy  of  the  authorities 
at  the  Observatory  Department  of  the  National 
Physical  Laboratory  at  Kew,  I  am  enabled  to  give 
below  the  meteorological  averages  of  Rainfall,  Sun- 
shine, and  Temperature  which  have  been  extracted 
from  the  records  by  permission  of  the  Meteorological 
Council.  These  figures  may  serve  for  comparison 
with  observations  made  in  other  parts  of  the  kingdom. 

From  these  figures  it  will  be  seen  that  the  popular 
expression  "  February  fill  dyke "  is  by  no  means 
accurate,  as  February  and  March  are  generally  the 
driest  months  in  the  year.  At  Ealing  the  average 



rainfall  for  forty  years  has  been  25-39  in.,  although 
in  1908  there  was  as  much  as  27*34  in.  And  during 
the  past  three  years,  1906,  1907,  1908,  there  have 
been  248,  240,  and  242  dry  days  respectively. 


Average  in  inches 
for  35  years, 

Average  in  hours 
for  25  years, 

Average  for  35 
years,  1871-1905. 




38°-9  F. 













































Yearly    Means 

and  Total 


24-087  in. 

1457-9  hrs. 

49°-3  F. 


Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at   i  ft.  deep,  6i°.8o.     Air,  6i°.28 
(Paris  65°). 

Cabbages. — Seeds  of  "Ox  Heart  "  may  be  sown 
on  old  hot-beds  or  on  borders  for  succession. 

Carrots. — A  small  sowing  of  "  Early  Paris  Forcing  " 
may  be  made  on  old  beds,  or  on  warm  borders  for 
winter  use. 

Cauliflowers. — Sow  seeds  of  "  Lenormand "  and 
"  Early  Erfurt,"  afterwards  pricking  seedlings  out 


under  lights.  Cauliflowers  nearing  maturity  should 
be  kept  growing  freely  by  copious  waterings  and 
frequent  use  of  the  hoe.  Keep  a  watch  on  cater- 

Corn  Salad. — Sow  early  in  the  month  ;  afterwards 
at  intervals  of  three  or  four  weeks  till  the  end  of 
October  for  succession  crops  if  necessary. 

Endives. — Those  planted  out  at  end  of  June  should 
now  be  ready  for  tying  up.  They  require  plenty  of 
water  during  hot  weather.  The  "  Green  Batavian  " 
Endive  should  now  be  planted  out. 

Lettuces. — Cos  and  Cabbage  varieties  sown  in  July 
should  be  ready  for  planting  under  cloches  about  the 
end  of  the  month — one  Cos  lettuce  and  three  Cabbage 
Lettuces  under  each  cloche. 

The  "  Passion  "  and  "  Black  Gotte  "  varieties  of 
Cabbage  Lettuces  should  now  be  sown  for  early 
supplies.  The  seedlings  should  be  pricked  out  under 
lights  or  cloches  when  ready. 

Spinach. — Winter  Spinach  should  be  sown  in  the 
open  borders  early  in  the  month. 

Turnips. — Seed  should  be  sown  to  yield  nice  roots 
in  October  and  November. 

Hot-beds. — Manure  for  these  should  be  prepared 
and  turned  over,  and  old  Melon  beds  should  be  cleaned 


Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  i  ft.  deep,  57°. 54.     Air,  56°.  14 
(Paris  60°). 

Cauliflowers. — Sow  seeds  of  "  Dwarf  Early  Erfurt  " 
about  the  middle  of  the  month,  and  prick  out  seedlings 
in  other  beds  in  October  when  large  enough.  The 


plants  from  these  must  be  wintered  in  frames,  and 
will  be  ready  for  planting  amongst  Carrots  in  March 

Leeks  sown  in  May,  and  transplanted  in  July, 
will  be  ready  during  this  month. 

Lettuces. — The  Cos  or  Romaine  varieties  are  sown 
under  cloches  and  will  be  ready  for  pricking  out  in  early 

Cabbages. — Another  sowing  may  be  made  of  "  Ox 

Corn  Salad,  Turnips,  Carrots,  and  Radishes  may  also 
be  sown — the  last  named  on  warm  sheltered  borders. 

Onions  sown  in  August  will  be  ready  for  pricking 
out  preparatory  to  the  final  planting  in  October. 

Endives. — Seeds  of  "  Ruifec  "  and  "  Green  Batavian  " 
may  be  sown  to  be  pricked  out  under  cloches  in 


Mean  temperature  of  the  Soil  at  I  ft.  deep,  5i°.52.     Air,  49°-35 
(Paris  48°). 

Lettuces. — The  small  kinds,  if  sown  early  in  the 
month,  will  be  ready  for  cutting  about  February. 
"  Passion  "  Lettuces  sown  this  month  may  be  pricked 
out  and  grown  on  under  cloches  or  in  frames  till 
January,  and  then  planted  out. 

Lettuces  sown  in  August  will  be  ready  for  planting 
early  this  month,  if  not  at  end  of  September,  on  raised 
sloping  beds  under  cloches. 

About  the  middle  of  the  month,  Lettuces  (Cos  and 
Cabbage  varieties)  may  be  sown  for  early  forced  crops. 
The  kinds  for  this  sowing  should  be  "  Black  Gotte," 
"  Passion,"  and  "  Blonde  Paresseuse." 



Cabbages,  "  Ox  Heart." — Seedlings  will  now  be  ready 
early  in  October  for  pricking  out,  so  as  to  be  ready 
for  planting  on  warm  sheltered  borders  by  the  middle 
of  November. 

Endives  planted  out  in  open-air  beds  in  July  will 
be  ready  this  month.  Plants  from  the  September 
sowing  should  be  pricked  out  under  cloches. 

Corn  Salad  may  be  sown  in  the  open  air. 

Asparagus. — Crowns  two  or  three  years  old  should 
be  taken  up  before  the  frost,  and  placed  on  hot-beds 
for  forcing  (see  p.  76). 

Radishes  may  be  sown  on  warm  sheltered  borders 
early  in  the  month.  In  the  event  of  frost  it  would 
be  well  to  cover  with  lights  or  protect  with  straw  or 


Mean  temperature  of  the  Soil  at  i  //.  deep  46°. 01.     Air,  42°. 89 
(Paris  44°). 

Lettuces,  "  Small  Black  Gotte." — The  young  plants 
from  seeds  sown  in  August  will  be  ready  for  planting 
on  hot-beds  by  the  middle  of  this  month.  Others 
will  be  ready  for  pricking  out  under  cloches. 

Cabbages. — About  the  middle  of  the  month  young 
plants  of  "  Ox  Heart  "  sown  in  August  will  be  ready 
for  planting  out  18  in.  apart  on  warm  borders,  having 
been  already  pricked  out  of  seed-beds  early  in  October. 

Cauliflowers  grown  under  cloches  or  lights  should 
be  protected  with  mats  at  night  in  case  of  frost. 

Celery  should  be  protected  against  frost  with  litter 
or  bracken. 

Carrots — "  Grelot  "  or  "  Early  Forcing  Horn  " — may 


be  sown  about  the  end  of  the  month  on  hot-beds,  and 
amongst  them  thirty  or  thirty-six  Cabbage  Lettuces 
("  Black  Gotte  ")  may  be  planted  under  each  light. 

Radishes  are  often  sown  in  these  lights  after  planting 
the  Lettuces.  They  grow  quickly  and  are  gathered 
before  they  interfere  with  either  the  Lettuces  or  the 

Spinach  should  be  sown  about  the  middle  of  the 
month  under  lights.  The  "  Flanders "  variety  will 
resist  the  cold  well. 

Ventilation. — The  cloches  and  lights  under  which 
"  Passion "  Lettuces  are  grown  must  be  ventilated 
as  freely  as  possible  to  prevent  the  leaves  decaying. 


-Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  i  ft.  deep,  4i°.i3.     Air,  38°.I4 
(Paris  41°). 

Lettuces. — At  end  of  month  the  beds  which  have 
carried  "  Black  Gotte  "  Lettuces  are  turned  over,  and 
some  fresh  manure  is  added  previous  to  making  up 
for  another  crop. 

The  ground  for  "  Passion  "  Lettuces  in  the  open 
should  be  deeply  dug,  and  after  levelling  and  raking 
may  be  covered  with  a  layer  of  old  manure.  The 
Lettuces  should  be  planted  about  the  end  of  January. 

Cabbages. — Seedlings  that  have  not  been  pricked 
out  will  be  left  in  beds  until  February,  but  should  be 
protected  against  hard  frosts  with  a  little  straw,  litter, 
or  bracken  when  necessary. 

Carrots  may  be  sown  on  all  hot-beds  in  which  Cos 
Lettuces  or  Cabbage  Lettuces  are  to  be  planted. 

Cloches. — At   this    season   one    Cos    Lettuce   (grise 


maratchere)  and  three  Cabbage  Lettuces  ("  Black 
Gotte ")  may  be  grown  under  each  glass  on  the 

Radishes  may  also  be  thinly  sown  just  after  planting 
the  Lettuces. 

Manure. — The  old  manure  which  is  to  be  used  for 
covering  the  beds  next  season  should  be  got  into 
ridges  about  3  ft.  high  and  10  ft.  apart,  and  fresh 
manure  may  be  wheeled  in  between  them  for  the 
formation  of  the  beds. 


Mean  temperature  of  the  Soil  at  i  //.  deep,  40°. 07.     Air,  38°. 21 
(Paris  41°). 

Asparagus. — Seeds  may  be  sown  on  hot-beds  about 
the  middle  of  the  month.  Crowns  two  or  three  years 
old  may  be  forced  in  the  way  described  at  p.  76. 

Cabbages. — Any  young  plants  that  have  been 
frosted  should  be  covered  with  straw  or  litter  to 
prevent  quick  thawing,  which  often  does  great  harm 
to  the  plants. 

Carrots. — Sow  "  Early  Forcing  Horn  "  with  Radishes 
on  beds  that  are  to  be  planted  with  Lettuces. 

Cauliflowers. — Seeds  of  "  Lenormand  "  or  "  Second 
Early  Paris  "  may  be  sown  to  produce  plants  for 
putting  between  the  Cos  Lettuces  later  on. 

Cucumbers. — Sow  seeds  about  the  end  of  the  month. 

Lettuces. — The  white-leaved  "  Passion  "  raised  from 
seeds  sown  in  October  should  be  ready  for  planting 
in  the  open  air  in  mild  weather  about  the  end  of  the 
month,  or  sooner,  to  be  ready  in  April  or  May.  Before 
planting,  seeds  of  "  French  Breakfast  Radishes  "  may 


be  sown  on  the  same  soil.  "  Black  Gottes  "  may  be 
planted  on  the  top  of  beds  in  which  Radishes  and 
Carrots  are  sown. 

Any  Lettuces  attacked  with  mildew  should  be 
removed  and  burned.  Clean  healthy  plants  should  fill 
the  vacant  places  and  have  a  little  flowers  of  sulphur 
strewed  round  them. 

Melons. — Seeds  of  the  "  Cantaloup  "  varieties  should 
be  sown  about  the  end  of  the  month,  to  have  fruits 
in  May  and  June. 

Radishes. — Seeds  of  "  French  Breakfast  "  kinds  and 
"  Early  Forcing  Horn  "  Carrots  may  be  sown  in  beds 
on  which  "  Gotte  "  Lettuces  are  to  be  planted. 

Spinach. — An  early  supply  may  be  obtained  by  sow- 
ing on  hot-beds  during  the  month. 

Tomatoes. — Seeds  may  be  sown  to  produce  plants 
for  putting  under  cloches  in  May. 

Protection. — Frames  and  cloches  must  be  protected 
from  frost  with  mats  at  night,  and  fresh  manure  must 
be  added  if  necessary  to  keep  up  the  temperature. 


Mean  temperature  of  the  Soil  at  I  //.  deep,  39°-74-     Airt  38°.42 
(Paris  38°). 

Lettuces. — Look  over  the  plants  in  frames  and 
remove  old  or  decaying  leaves  regularly.  Others  may 
be  planted  under  cloches — one  Cos  Lettuce  in  the 
centre  of  three  Cabbage  Lettuces.  The  bed  holds 
nine  rows  (see  p.  162). 

Melons. — Seeds  of  "  Cantaloup  Prescott  fond  blanc  " 
may  be  sown  again.  When  large  enough  transfer  each 
seedling  to  a  3-in.  pot  in  nice  rich  loam. 



Endives. — Sow  the  "  Rouen  "  variety  about  the 
middle  of  the  month  on  a  hot-bed,  afterwards  pricking 
out  the  little  plants  in  another  bed,  and  eventually 
transferring  to  cold  frames  or  cloches  when  ready 
early  in  April.  "  Paris  Green  Curled  "  (or  La  Parisi- 
enne)  is  another  good  variety  for  sowing  at  this  season. 

Cauliflowers. — About  middle  of  month  make  a 
sowing  on  hot-bed  to  have  young  plants  to  put  under 
cloches  in  March. 

Cabbages. — Seeds  may  be  sown  on  hot-beds  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  month  to  produce  plants  in  suc- 
cession to  those  sown  in  August  or  September. 
Plants  from  the  autumn  sowing  should  be  planted  out 
after  the  middle  of  the  month. 

Turnips. — Sow  early  in  the  month  on  old  Lettuce 
beds  that  have  been  re-made.  The  half-long  or 
"  Marteau  "  variety  is  recommended  at  this  season 
by  French  growers,  but  "  Early  Snowball  "  or  other 
English  varieties  would  probably  yield  excellent 

Radishes. — Sow  again  on  beds  carrying  Lettuces  or 
Carrots.  Sow  also  in  the  open  air  in  warm  sheltered 

Spinach. — Sow  at  intervals  of  two  or  three  weeks 
from  the  middle  of  the  month  in  the  open  air. 

Celery  and  Celeriac. — Sow  seeds  at  end  of  month 
or  early  in  March. 

Mats. — In  January,  February,  and  March,  when 
the  mats  are  taken  off  the  lights  or  cloches  in  the 
morning,  they  should  be  stood  on  edge  and  spread 
out  against  walls  and  fences  to  drain  and  dry  if  they 
have  been  soaked  with  rain  during  the  night. 



Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  i   ft.  deep,  40°. 96.     Air,  4O°.49 
(Paris  42°). 

Lettuces. — Cos  varieties  may  be  planted  in  the  hot- 
beds. In  beds  sown  with  Radishes,  Lettuces,  and 
Carrots  in  January,  the  Radishes  will  have  been  all 
gathered  by  this  time,  leaving  only  the  Lettuces  and 
Carrots.  "  Passion "  Lettuces  in  frames  must  be 
well  ventilated  both  day  and  night. 

Melons. — Young  plants  will  be  ready  for  planting  in 
frames  at  end  of  this  month,  and  should  have  the 
main  shoot  stopped  beyond  the  second  leaf  as  early 
as  possible. 

Cauliflowers. — Sow  seeds  of  "Lenormand"  for 
growing  in  old  hot-beds  in  the  open  during  the 
summer  months.  Cauliflowers  from  seeds  raised  about 
the  middle  of  last  September,  and  pricked  out  in 
October,  should  now  be  planted  on  the  hot-beds 
containing  Carrots.  They  may  also  be  planted  in 
beds  with  Cabbage  Lettuces  and  Spinach  or  Radishes. 

Protection. — Mats  must  be  placed  over  cloches  and 
frames  at  night  when  frost  is  anticipated.  They 
should  not  be  removed  in  morning  until  after  the 
thaw  has  set  in. 

Cucumbers. — Seeds  of  long  green  varieties  may  be 
sown  between  the  middle  of  March  and  middle  of 
April,  to  be  ready  for  final  planting  about  the  end  of 

Carrots. — The  last  sowing  of  "  Half-long  "  varieties 
on  hot-beds  is  made  early  this  month,  also  under 
cloches,  and  in  the  open  borders.  Radishes  may  be 
sown  at  same  time  amongst  those  on  hot-beds. 


Leeks. — Sow  in  open  air  (see  p.   141). 

Spinach. — Sowings  may  be  made  between  other 
crops  such  as  Lettuces  (Cos  and  Cabbage),  Endives, 
Cabbages,  etc.,  or  in  separate  beds. 

Sorrel  may  be  sown  during  the  spring  and  summer 
to  keep  up  a  supply  of  leaves. 

Cabbages. — Sow  for  summer  and  autumn  crops  in 
the  open  air,  and  hoe  between  the  Ox-Heart  varieties 
in  the  open  air. 

Onions. — Early  in  the  month  seedlings  that  were 
not  disturbed  in  the  beds  should  be  planted  out. 

Turnips. — The  lights  should  be  taken  off  these  on 
all  fine  days  and  even  at  night  if  no  frosts  are  feared. 
Mats  should  be  handy  for  covering  in  case  of  sudden 

Dandelions. — Seeds  may  be  sown  now  and  at 
intervals  until  June  to  produce  plants  for  autumn  and 
winter  salads. 


Mean  temperature  of  the  Soil  at  i  ft,  deep,  46°. 47.     Air,  46°. 57 
(Paris  48°). 

Cauliflowers. — After  the  first  batch  of  Lettuces  under 
cloches  have  been  cleared,  and  the  glasses  have  been 
moved  over  the  other  rows  (as  explained  at  p.  163), 
Cauliflowers  may  be  planted  in  the  places  left  vacant 
by  the  Cos  Lettuces. 

Cauliflowers  from  seeds  sown  in  September  may  be 
planted  in  the  open  air  about  2  to  2\  ft.  apart 
(see  p.  113). 

Cabbages. — By   the    end  of    this   month   the    "  Ox 


Heart "  varieties  sown  last  August  will  now  be  ready 
for  cutting.  Those  sown  in  February  will  be  ready 
for  planting  out  about  the  middle  of  the  month. 

Lettuces. — The  "  Passion  "  variety,  planted  in 
January,  will  now  be  nearing  maturity,  and  the  space 
between  each  plant  may  be  filled  with  a  Cauliflower. 
The  frames  and  lights  may  be  taken  away  altogether 
from  these  crops,  if  necessary,  about  the  end  of  the 
month,  and  used  for  a  second  crop  of  Melons. 

Melons. — Those  already  in  frames  require  careful 
ventilation  each  day  when  the  weather  is  fine.  Seeds 
should  be  sown  each  week  to  have  plants  ready  later 
on  for  the  beds  as  they  become  vacant. 

Celery. — Make  a  sowing  early  in  April,  and  prick 
out  3  in.  apart  in  May  on  an  old  hot-bed.  These  are 
to  follow  Cauliflowers.  Young  Celery  plants  may  now 
be  placed  in  frames,  from  which  Turnips,  Radishes, 
and  Carrots  have  been  gathered. 

Lettuces. — The  Cos  varieties  grown  on  hot-beds  will 
require  attention.  As  the  earlier  plants  are  nearing 
maturity,  the  cloches  covering  them  should  be  removed 
to  cover  the  plants  next  in  order  of  ripening,  as  ex- 
plained at  p.  163. 

Carrots. — During  this  month  attention  must  be  given 
to  weeding  and  thinning  out,  as  the  plants  grow  quickly. 
If  necessary,  the  frames  may  be  raised  2  or  3  in.  by 
placing  bricks  or  blocks  of  wood  at  corners,  but  manure 
should  be  previously  banked  up  round  frames  to 
prevent  soil  from  falling  down  afterwards. 

Celeriac. — The  young  plants  from  seeds  sown  at  end 
of  February  or  early  in  March  will  be  ready  for  pricking 
out  on  south  borders  or  on  an  old  hot-bed. 



Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  I   ft.  deep,  53°. n.     Air,  53°. 54 
(Paris  58°). 

Lettuces. — The  last  of  the  plants  placed  under  cloches 
in  February  will  be  ready  this  month.  The  first  crop 
will  be  ready  for  pulling. 

"  Passion  "  Lettuces  grown  in  cold  frames  or  on 
warm  borders  will  be  ready  for  cutting. 

Endives. — If  the  weather  is  mild  and  moist,  Endives 
may  be  planted  in  the  open  ;  and  another  sowing  of 
"  Rouen  "  may  be  made  on  a  hot-bed. 

Cauliflowers. — These  may  be  planted  on  the  edges 
of  old  beds  that  have  borne  a  crop  of  Cos  Lettuces. 
Cauliflowers  in  frames  with  Carrots  must  be  ventilated 
both  day  and  night,  to  harden  them  off.  They  must 
be  regularly  watered.  Early  in  the  month  the  frames 
and  lights  over  these  should  be  removed  for  Melons, 
if  the  weather  is  fine. 

Tomatoes  may  be  planted  out  under  cloches  this 
month  (see  p.  61). 

Melons. — Prepare  trenches  2  ft.  wide  and  i  ft.  deep, 
and  fill  with  two-thirds  dry  and  one-third  fresh 
manure  for  making  Melon  beds.  These  are  covered 
with  soil  from  trench  in  next  bed.  When  Melons  are 
planted,  the  lights  are  placed  on  frames  and  kept  close 
and  shaded  for  a  few  days  (see  p.  172).  Early  in  the 
month  a  final  sowing  of  "Cantaloup  Prescott"  and 
"  Kroumir"  may  be  made. 

Watering. — This  is  an  important  operation.  Abund- 
ance must  be  given  to  Melons  well  set  in  fruit,  and  also 
to  Cauliflowers  showing  heads. 

Leeks. — Make  a  sowing  of  "  Long  Winter  Paris  "  to 


be  planted  out  in  July  in  beds  where  Carrots  and 
Cauliflowers  have  been  grown.  Water  freely  and  hoe 

Cornichons  or  Prickly  Cucumbers  may  be  sown  on 
old  hot-beds  early  in  the  month  (see  p.  129). 

Celery. — Seeds  of  the  "  Blond  "  variety  may  be  sown 
early  in  May  for  autumn  use. 

Radishes  may  still  be  sown  in  vacant  places  on 
beds  or  in  the  open  air. 

Endives. — About  the  third  week  in  May  sowings  of 
the  fine-leaved  and  broad-leaved  varieties  may  be 
sown  in  the  open,  afterwards  intercropping  with 
Lettuces.  Others  maturing  should  be  tied  (see  p.  139). 

Celeriac. — The  final  planting  should  be  done  this 


Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  i  ft.   deep,  60°. 02.     Air,  60°. 45 
(Paris  64°). 

Endives. — The  "  Rouen  "  variety  should  be  planted 
out  at  end  of  month  on  old  manure  beds.  Earlier 
crops  will  need  tying  up,  and  will  be  ready  during  the 

The  variety  called  "  Ruffec  "  and  "  Green  Batavian  " 
may  now  be  sown  on  old  hot-beds  to  give  a  supply  in 

Carrots  and  Cauliflowers  will  be  ready  about  the 
third  or  fourth  week,  and  the  beds  on  which  they  are 
grown  may  be  used  for  Melons  sown  in  May  ;  or  the 
beds  may  be  planted  with  Endive  or  Celery. 

Each  morning  the  Cauliflowers  should  be  examined, 
and  those  developing  heads  rapidly  should  have  some 


of  the  lower  leaves  detached  and  placed  over  them, 
to  keep  them  pure  white,  otherwise  they  become 
browned  and  are  not  so  valuable  (see  p.  114). 

Cauliflowers  and  Melons. — A  sowing  of  "Lenormand" 
Cauliflowers  early  in  May  will  produce  young  plants 
that  will  be  ready  for  planting  among  the  Melons  at 
the  end  of  June — about  four  plants  to  each  light. 

Lettuces. — The  last  of  the  Cos  Lettuces  grown  in 
frames  or  under  cloches  will  now  be  disposed  of. 

Melons  must  be  well  watered  this  month,  and  have 
plenty  of  air,  even  at  night-time  in  fine  weather. 
Fruits  from  first  crop  will  be  ready  by  end  of  month. 

Catch  Crops. — The  beds  that  have  borne  Carrots 
and  Cauliflowers,  and  have  been  prepared  for  Endive 
or  Celery,  may  have  catch  crops  of  Spinach  or  Break- 
fast Radishes  sown  on  them  after  the  Endive  or 
Celery  has  been  planted. 

Cabbages. — About  the  middle  of  June  seeds  of  Winter 
Cabbages  and  Savoys  may  be  sown  on  old  beds,  the 
seedlings  being  ready  for  planting  out  at  the  end  of 
July  if  they  have  been  well  watered  and  not  sown  too 


Mean  temperature  of  Soil  at  I   ft.   deep,  62°. 85.     Air,  63°. 40 
(Paris  67°). 

Asparagus  raised  from  seeds  sown  in  January  will 
be  ready  for  planting  out  about  the  middle  of  July. 
The  best  plants  only  should  be  chosen. 

Carrots,  early,  and  Spinach  may  be  sown  as  catch- 
crops  on  beds  of  other  crops,  and  must  be  well  watered, 
to  be  ready  in  October. 


Endives  sown  in  June  may  now  be  planted  in  the 
open-air  beds,  and  will  be  ready  by  October.  "  Ruffec  " 
and  "  Green  Batavian  "  are  the  best  at  this  period. 

Cauliflowers  may  be  planted  in  the  Endive  beds, 
one  between  every  two. 

Celery. — When  the  Cauliflowers  that  were  planted 
in  the  Carrot  beds  in  March  have  been  cleared,  their 
place  may  be  taken  by  the  Celery  plants  raised  in 

Melons  must  now  be  watched  regularly  for  the 
ripening  of  the  fruits,  and  lights  may  be  removed 
altogether  if  weather  is  fine. 

Lettuces. — Cos  and  Cabbage  varieties  may  be  sown 
in  open  beds  for  planting  at  the  end  of  August. 

Manure. — During  this  month  stable  manure  must 
be  obtained  in  large  quantities  and  stacked  into  heaps 
(see  p.  19). 


Although  no  two  gardens  devoted  to  intensive 
cultivation  are  exactly  alike  in  shape,  size,  or  system 
of  cropping,  the  diagram  overleaf  may  serve  to  give 
a  fairly  good  idea  as  to  the  lines  upon  which  a  French 
garden  is  generally  laid  down.  In  actual  practice 
various  modifications  would  naturally  be  made  accord- 
ing to  the  site  and  aspect ;  and  entrances  and  exits 
would  appear  at  the  most  convenient  spots  in  the 
fences  or  hedges. 



Stores        Manure     ^^-J^" 
















*          'RADISHES 




(This  quarter  may  be  for  open 
beds  in  alternate  years) 











(This  quarter  may  be  for  open 
beds  in  alternate  years) 








Path                           &°                           Path 


















(To  be  occupied  by  cloches 
in  alternate  years) 

(To  be  occupied  by  frames 
in  alternate  years) 



*       SPINACH 






















*  —  Standpipes  for  watering  (see  p.  49). 


Allium  Cepa,  185 

Porrum,  139 

Amateur  gardeners,  a  word  to,  30 
Annual  expenses,  26 

receipts,  26 
Aphides,  166 
Aphis,  Black,  178 
Apium  graveolens,  115 
April,  work  for,  216 
Artichokes,  Globe,  67 
Asparagus,  68 
-  Argenteuil,  84 

beetle,  88 

bunching,   86 

cutting,  86 

diseases  and  pests  of,  88 

forcing,  73,  76 

green,  75 

intercropping  between,  70,  80 

open-air  culture  of,  78 

raising  the  plants,  68 

rust,  88 

transplanting,  72 

white,  68 
Aubergines,  131 
August,  work  for,  207 

Barbe  de  Capucin,  121 
Beans,  Dwarf,  89 

French,  89 

Haricot,  89 

Beds,  preparing  the,  12 
Bell-glasses,  34 

Borders,  8 

sloping,  12 
Brassica  Napus,  201 
Brussels  Chicory,  122 
Burhill  Golf  Club,  3 

Cabbages,  92 

Cceur  de  Boeuf,  93 

Early  E*tampes,  93 
„  Summer,  96 
„  York,  92 

Express,  93 

Ox-heart,  92 

Plat  de  Paris,  96 

Pomme  de  Paris,  93 

St.  Denis,  93 

Calendar  of  operations,  205 
Capillary  attraction,  15 
Cardoons,  97 

blanching,  98 
Carrots,  99 

Bellot,  100 

Carentan,  Scarlet,  101 

Dutch  Horn,  100 

Early  Forcing  Horn,  100 

first  crops  of,  102 

French  forcing,  100 

Grelot,   loo 

Half -long  Nantes,  101 

Paris  forcing,  100 

Rouge  demi-longue  Nantaise, 

Forcer  Parisienne,  100 




Carrots  (contd.) — 

Sans  Cceur,  101 

Scarlet  Horn,  100 

thinning  out,  104 

Toupie,  100 
Caterpillars,  114 
Cauliflowers,  104 

Autumn  Giant,  106 

Boule  de  Neige,  105 

covering  the  heads,  114 

Demi-dur  de  Paris,  105 

Dwarf  Early  Erfurt,  105 

Early  Dutch,  106 

London,  106 
,,       Paris,  105 
Snowball,  105 

Express,  105 

first  crops  of,  no 

Gros  Salomon,  1 05 

intercropping  between,  in 

late  crops  of,  114 

Lenormand,  105 

Nain  hatif  d' Erfurt,   105 

Petit  Salomon,  105 

pricking  out  young,  108 

protection,  109 

Second  Early  Paris,  105 

spring  and  summer,  112 

succession  crops,   113 

transplanting,    108 
Celeriac,  120 
Celeri  Rave,  120 
Celery,   115 

blanching,  117 

diseases,  120 

fly, 120 

Turnip-rooted,    120 
Chicoree  frisees,  134 
Chicory,  121 

Brussels,  122 
Chou  Marin,  195 
Christmas  Roses,  64 
Cichorium  Endivia,   134 

Cichorium  Intybus,  121 
Cloches,  34 

carrier  for,  35 

mending,  37 

stacking,  36 

tilts  for,  41 

use  of,  37 

Cockchafer  grubs,   166 
Combination  crops,  55 
Commission  salesmen,  29 
Cornichons,  129 
Corn  Salad,  123 
Cost  of  maintenance,  24 
Covent  Garden  of  Paris,  129 
Crambe  maritima,   195 
Cucumbers,    124 

frame  culture  of,  125 

insect  pests,  etc.,  130 

open-air  culture  of,  128 

Prickly,   129 

under  cloches,  127 

White,  129 
Cucumis  Melo,  167 

sativus,  125 
Cynara  Cardunculus,  97 

Scolymus,  67 

Dandelions,  130 
Daucus  Carota,  99 
December,  work  for,  211 
Dwarf  Beans,  89 

Eel  worms,  130 
Eggplants,  131 
Elater  lineatus,  166 
Electric  pumps,  14 
Endives,  134 

blanching  and  tying,  139 

hot-bed  culture,  135 

frame  culture,  134 

intercropping  between,  138 

pricking  out,  136 

transplanting,    136 



Engine,  gas,  14 
Escaroles,  134 
Evesham  gardens,  3 
Expenses  of  French  garden,  25, 

February,  work  for,  213 
Frames,  32 

tilts  for,  40 
French  Beans,  89 
French  garden  at  Evesham,  2 
Burhill,  3 
Mayland,  2 

„  ,,  Thatcham,  3 

cost  of  a,  24 
plan  of  a,  222 
site  for  a,  7 
work  in  a,  6 
French  system,  extension  of,  39 

Gas  engines,  14 
Germination   of  seeds,   50 
Globe  Artichokes,  67 
Greenfly,  166 
Ground,  planning  out  the,  u 

Handbarrows,  43 
Haricot  Beans,  89 
Helleborus  niger,  64 
History  of  intensive  cultivation, 


Hotbeds,  making,  20 
width  of,  21 

Implements  and  accessories,  32 

miscellaneous,  45 
Intensive  cultivation,   i 

history  of,  4 

Intercropping  between—- 
Asparagus, 70,  80 

Aubergines,  132 

Cardoons,  98 

Carrots,  103 

Cauliflowers,  in,  113 

Intercropping  between  (contd. ) — 
Celery,  119 
Egg  Plants,  132 
Endives,  138 
Lettuces,  152 
Radishes,  189 

January,  work  for,  212 
July,  work  for,  229 
June,  work  for,  219 

Lactuca  capita ta,  143 

sativa,  142 
Lamb's  Lettuce,  123 
Leeks,  139 
Lettuces,   142 

All  the  Year  Round(Cabbage), 

Blonde  maraichere  (Cos),  158 

Brown  Champagne  (Cabbage), 

Cabbage,  143 

Red,   154 
Cos,  158 

Dwarf  Frame,  160 
Green  Paris  Market,  160 
Crepe  (Cabbage),   143 

culture  of,  145 
diseases  and  pests,  166 
Dwarf  Frame  Cos,  160 
George  (Cabbage),  153 
Gotte  (Cabbage),  143,  151 
Green  Paris  Market  Cos,  160 
Grise  (Cabbage),  156 

maraichere  (Cos),  159 
Grosse  brune  paresseuse  (Cab- 
bage), 144,  156 
Hammersmith  Green  Winter 

(Cabbage),  157 
Intercropping  between,  152 
Large    Winter     White    (Cab- 
bage), 157 
mildew  on,  166 




Lettuces  (contd.} — 

Morine  (Cabbage),  157 
Palatine  (Cabbage),  154 
Paris  Market  (Cos),  160 
Passion  (Cabbage),  145,  157 
Plate  a  Cloches  (Cos),  160 
pricking  out,  146 
Petite   noire    (Cabbage),    143, 


Romaines,  158 
shading,  159 
spring,  161 

summer  and  autumn,  164 
tying  Cos,  165 
Verte  maraichere   (Cos),    159, 

1 60 

Winter  Cabbage,  145,  156 
„      Red  Cabbage,  157 
Lights,  33 

Manure  basket,  43 

heap,  treatment  of,  18 
stand,  44 
Manures,  17 

artificial,    1 8 
Maraichers,  i 
March,  work  for,  215 
Marketing,  28 
Markets  in  Paris,  57 
Marrows,  Vegetable,  62 
Mats,  38 

frame  for  making,  39 
May,  work  for,  218 
Melolontha  vulgaris,   166 
Melons,  167 

canker  of,  178 

Cantaloup,  167 

Chypre,   1 76 

culture  of,   168 

Early  Frame,  167 

diseases  of,  177 

Kroumir,   176 

late  crops  of,  175 

Melons  (contd.} — 

nuile  of,  177 

pinching  of,  171,  173 

planting,   171 

Prescott,  167 

rotation  of,  175 

stopping,   173 

under  cloches,   176 

ventilation,  172 

watering,  172 

Meteorological  averages,  207 
Mildew  on  Lettuces,  166 
Mushroom  caves,  179 

spawn,  183 
Mushrooms,  178 

diseases  of,  183 
from  spores,  185 

November,  work  for,  210 

October,  work  for,  209 
Onions,  185 

cutting  back,    186 
Oyster,  Vegetable,  192 

Paris  vegetable  market,  57 
Pathways,  width  of,  21 
Peronospora  gangliformis,  166 
Phaseolus  vulgaris,  89 
Planning  out  the  ground,  n 
Potatoes,  Early,  62 
Preparing  the  beds,  12 
Pricking  out  seedlings,  52 
Primeurs,  i 
Puccinia  Asparagi,  88 
Pulsometers,   14 

Radishes,  188 

Black,  191 

Rainfall  averages,  207 
Raphanus  sativus,  188 
Receipts,  estimated  annual,  26 
Red  Spider,  130,  178 



Rhubarb,  63 
Rotation  of  crops,  55 
Rumex  Acetosa,  193 
montanus,  193 

Salesmen,  commission,  29 

Salsafy,  192 

Scaroles,  134 

Scolecotrichum    melophthorum, 


Scorzonera,  192 
Seakale,  195 
Seedlings,  pricking  out,  52 

transplanting,  53 
Seed  sowing,  49 
September,  work  for,  208 
Shading,  53 

Site  for  a  French  garden,  7 
Slugs,  167 

Soil  and  its  treatment,  10 
Solanum  Melongena,  131 
Sorrel,  193 

Maiden,  193 
Spawn,  Mushroom,  183 
Spinach,  199 

Spores,  Mushrooms  from,  185 
Standpipes,  49 
Strawberries,  60 
Sulphate  of  copper  solution,  89, 


Sunshine  averages,  207 

Taraxacum  Dens-Leonis,  130 
Temperature  averages,  207 
Tephritis  Onopordinis,  120 
Thatcham,  garden  at,  3 
Thermometers,  45 
Thinning  out  seedlings,  51 
Thrips,  178 
Tilts  for  cloches,  41 

for  frames,  40 
Tomatoes,  61 

Tragopogon  porrifolius,  192 
Transplanting  seedlings,  53 
Turnips,  201 

Valerianella  olitoria,  123 
Vegetable  market,  Paris,  57 

Marrows,  62 

Oyster,  192 
Ventilation,  53 
Violets,  63 

Water,  distribution  of,  16 
Watering,  47 

in  winter,  48 
Waterpots,  45 
Water  supply,  13 
Windmills,  14 
Wire  worms,  166 
Witloof,  122 

Printed  by  fiazell,  Watson  & 

V,  L.d.,  LonavH  ana  siyiesoury. 


of  Approved  Strains  of  Vegetables 

eminently  suited  for 


It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  Market-Gardeners  are 
very  particular  as  to  the  strains  of  Vegetables  they 
consider  best  suited  for  growing  for  the  Market. 

We  have  been  supplying  the  French  Market- 
Gardeners  with  Seeds  ever  since  their  business  has 
become  so  general  in  the  vicinity  of  large  Towns,  and 
have  thus  gained  a  long  experience  of  their  wants. 

We  can  supply  suitable  varieties  of : 

Also  STRAW  MATS,  CLOCHES  (Glass  Bells),  etc. 

Prices  and  Particulars  on  Jlpplication. 


Seed  Growers.  PARIS,  FRANCE. 

i  15* 


Stepney  Square,  High  St.,  Stepney, 

LON  DON,    E 

TELEPHONE:  E.3497. 



Heating  Apparatus   for   Greenhouses, 
Conservatories,  Motor  Houses,  Kennels, 



Send  for  fully  Illustrated 

Catalogue,  Free. 

The   Best  by  Test. 

State  size  of 
and  we  will 
be  pleased  to 
send  esti- 
mate free. 

The  only  Reliable  Heaters  in  the  U.K. 

Toope's  Perfect  Propagator. 


"Little  Vixen" 

Garden   Frame   Heaters. 

Hot  Air  or  Hot  Water,  from    1  4/- 


For  Oil,  Gas,  or  Coke.       For 
French  Intensive  Culture. 

French  Bell  Glasses,  Mats,  French  Frames,  etc, 

The  very  best  Material  only  used.       Prices  to  suit  all.       Superior  Goods. 
Quick  Deliveries. 

Send  for  separate  Catalogues  of  Coal  and  Coke  Heaters,  also  Incubators 
and  Poultry  Appliances. 


All  'Breakages   in  Orders  for 
Fifty  and  upwards  Replaced. 


or  Paillassons. 


or  Manure  'Baskets. 


for  Packing. 
Lowest  possible  quotations  made  for  quantities. 

Send  for  Price  Lists  to— 

The  French  Cloche  Co., 


Westminster,  S.W. 

Late  of  Evesham. 








Illustrated  with  many  Engravings  on  Wood.       Tenth  Edition. 
Medium  8vo.      158.  net. 






of  Paris. 

English  Edition  published  under  the  direction  of  W.  ROBINSON. 
Numerous  Illustrations.     Demy  8vo.      155.  net. 

•"The  Vegetable  Garden  '  is  a  complete  and  authoritative  work  upon  all  that  concerns 
vegetables,  and  stands  unique  among  works  on  the  subject.  It  should  be  on  the  bookshelf 
of  everyone  interested  in  vegetables,  for  it  is  not  a  work  for  the  grower  alone." — Garden. 






Illustrated  by  ALFRED  PARSONS.       Demy  8vo.       IDS.  6d.  net. 

WORKS    BY   WILLIAM    ROBINSON— Continued. 


Illustrated  with  Engravings  on  Wood.       Demy  8vo.       75.  6d.  net. 


Third  Edition  Revised.     With  Illustrations.       Svo.       los.  6d.  net. 


With  8  Illustrations.      Svo.      75.  6d. 


CULTURE,   FOR     THE     USE     OF    SCHOOLS. 
BY  FRANCIS  WATTS,   B.Sc.,  F.I.C.,  F.C.S.,  and 
WILLIAM  G.  FREEMAN,  B.Sc.,  A.R.C.S.,  F.L.S. 
Crown  Svo.     35.  6d. 



—  INDEX. 

"  Forms  a  welcome  change  from  the  many  appearing  under  similar  titles  in  that  it  is 
avowedly  based  upon  experiments,  and  treats  of  things  about  which  the  writers  really 
know  and  have  not  merely  read  up." — Nature. 



BY    W.    FREAM,    LL.D. 

Seventh  Edition.       With  numerous  Illustrations. 
Crown  Svo.      35.   6d. 


SOIL— Origin  and  Properties  of  Soils— Composition  and  Classification  of  Soils- 
Sources  of  Loss  and  of  Gain  of  Soils — Moisture  in  Soils — Improvements  of  Soils — Tillage 
— Implements  for  Working  Soils— Manures  and  Manuring. 

THE  PLANT— Seeds  and  their  Germination— Structure  and  Functions  of  Plants- 
Cultivated  Plants — Weeds— Selections  of  Seeds — Implements  for  securing  Crops — Grass 
Land  and  its  Management — Farm  Crops — Fungus  Pests — Insect  Pests. 

THE  ANIMAL— Structure  and  Functions  of  Farm  Animals— Composition  of  the 
Animal  Body— Foods  and  Feeding— The  Art  of  Breeding— Horses,  Cattle,  Sheep,  Pigs  : 
Their  Breeds,  Feeding  and  Management — The  Fattening  of  Cattle,  Sheep  and  Pigs- 
Dairying — Index  of  Plants — General  Index. 




With  Illustrations.     Large  Crown  8vo.     58.  net. 

1.— INTRODUCTORY— Houses  and  their  Construction— Selection  of  the  Site— Pots- 
Soil — Stocks — Span-roofed  Houses  -Three-quarter  Span— Lean-to  Houses — Ventilation 
— Inexpensive  Houses — Wire  Houses — Protection  against  Birds — Water — Cost  of  Con- 

II. — THE  FURNISHING  OF  THE  HOUSE — Number  of  Trees  Required — Arrangement  ot 
the  Trees — Beds  and  Borders — The  Need  for  Separate  Compartments. 

III.— CULTURAL  DETAILS— The  Forms  of  Trees -Potting— Soil— Potting-hook  and 
Prong — Perforated  Pots — Method  of  Forcing— Pruning — Pinching — Hide-bound  Trees- 
Surface  Dressing— Number  of  Fruits  on  a  Tree — Cost  of  Trees — Longevity,  etc. 

IV.— VARIETIES  OF  FRUITS— Peaches  and  Nectarines— Apricots— Plums— Chsrries— 
Apples  and  Pears-  Baking  Pears — The  Mulberry — The  Fig — The  Vine. 

V. — INSECT  AND  OTHER  PESTS — Green  Fly — Brown  Aphis— Red  Spider — Thrip— 
Earwigs— Weevils— Ants— Mildew,  etc. 


VII.— MISCELLANEOUS  OBSERVATIONS— Flavour— Gathering  the  Fruit— Fruit  Trees 
for  Decorative  Purposes — Miscellaneous  Directions,  etc. 


"  A  valuable  contribution  to  a  very  interesting  phase  of  fruit-culture." — Field. 

"  Brief,  clear,  and  well-founded  in  the  practical  wisdom  born  of  life-long  experience  in 
the  kind  of  gardening  it  describes,  the  work  cannot  but  be  serviceable." — Scotsman. 



BY    F.    C.    HAYES,    M.A., 

Rector  of  Raheny  ;  Lecturer  in  Practical  Horticulture  in 
Alexandra  College,  Dublin. 

With  Illustrations.     Crown  8vo.     2S.  6d.  net. 


PART  I. — GENERAL  PRINCIPLES — Principles  and  Practice  of  Gardening — The  Soil :  its 
Nature  and  Preparation — The  Food  of  Plants:  Manuring — Half-hardy  Plants  and 
Greenhouse  Culture — Hot-beds  and  Cold  Frames — The  Gardenei  s  Natural  Enemies — 
Seeds  and  their  Treatment — Budding,  Grafting,  Inarching,  Layering,  and  Striking. 

PART  II. — DEPARTMENTS — The  Spring  Garden — Summer  and  Autumn  Flowers — 
Herbaceous  and  Rock  Border  combined — Alpine  Borders — Roses — Ferns  :  their  Nature 
and  Classes— Construction  of  Ferneries — Climbers — Lawn  Shrubs — Shrubs  and  Autumn 
Tints— Treatment  of  Lawns — Culture  of  Vegetables— Growing  Fruit  and  Pruning  Trees. 

hART  III — TvPts  OF  HARDY  FLOWERS— Heartsease,  Violas,  and  Violets— Scillas 
and  Gentians — Irises — Lilies — Anemones — Carnations  —  Chrysanthemums  —  Cyclamens 
and  Tuberous  Begonias — Christmas  Roses — Wallflowers  (Cheiranthus) — Primroses — 
Annuals,  Biennials,  and  Perennials — Fragrant  Plants  —  Cordyline  Australis  —  Water- 
lilies  (Nymphaea) 

PART  IV.— KALENDAR  FOR  MONTHS — Gardening  in  January — Gardening  in  February 
— Gardening  in  March — Gardening  in  April — Gardening  in  May — Gardening  in  June— 
Gardening  in  July — Gardening  in  August — Gardening  in  September — Gardening  in 
October — Gardening  in  November  and  December — A  Short  List  of  Reference  Books  on 
Gardening  for  Students — Specimen  Examination  Papers — Index. 

"  Not  so  big  that  it  need  frighten  the  ardent  amateur,  nor  so  much  of  a  primer  that  it 
may  be  disdained  by  the  fairly  accomplished  gardener,  it  has  a  good  scheme.  The  first 
part,  consisting  of  eight  chapters  of  general  principles,  in  simple,  non-technical  language, 
is  a  model  of  useful  information  in  a  small  space  ;  the  second  part  deals  with  departments 
of  gardening  the  third,  with  types  of  flowers,  and  the  fourth  is  a  calendar  to  work  by  " 

—Daily  Chronicle. 




BY    A.    D.    HALL,    M.A.   (Oxon.), 

President  of  the  Rothamsted  Station  (Lawes  Agricultural  Trust) ; 
First  President  of  the  South-Eastern  Agricultural  College. 

With  Diagrams.     55.  net. 

The  science  of  agriculture  has  advanced  considerably  since  the  first  edition  of  this  book 
was  published,  so  Mr.  Hall  has  taken  advantage  of  the  need  for  a  reprint  to  produce  what 
is  practically  a  new  book.  A  good  deal  of  fresh  material  has  been  added,  the  latest 
statistics  have  been  included  and  the  whole  text  has  been  thoroughly  overhauled  and 
re-set,  bringing  everything  completely  up  to  date. 

An  excellent  and  up-to-date  text-book.  .   .   .   The  complete  knowledge  of  the  soil  and 
part  it  plays  in  the  nutrition  of  the  plants  requires  investigation  along  three  lines, 
which  may  be  roughly  classed  as— chemical,  physical  or  mechanical,  and  biological.    It 

the  part  it  plays  in  the  nutrition  of  the  plants  requires  investigation  along  three  lines, 
which  may  be  roughly  classed  as— chemical,  physical  or  mechanical,  and  biological.  It 
is  exactly  these  with  which  the  author  deals,  and  although  it  is  in  no  sense  an  exhaustive 

treatise,  a  general  outline  has  been  given  of  all  the  recent  investigations  which  have 
opened  up  so  many  soil  problems,  and  thrown  new  light  on  difficulties  that  are  experienced 
in  practice." — Gardeners'  Chronicle. 

THE    BOOK    OF   THE 

BY    A.    D.    HALL,    M.A.  (Oxon.), 

President  of  the  Rothamsted  Experimental  Station  ;  First  President  of  the 
South-Eastern  Agricultural  College. 


With  Illustrations.     Medium  8vo.     los.  6d.  net. 


Appendix— INDEX. 



BY  A.  D.   HALL,  M.A.  (Oxon.), 

Director  of  the  Rothamsted  Station  (Lawes  Agricultural  Trust)  ; 
Author  of  "  The  Soil,"  "  The  Book  of  the  Rothamsted  Experiments," 


Crown  8vo. 

This  book,  which  is  a  companion  volume  to  the  same  Author's  book  on 
"  The  Soil,"  deals  not  only  with  the  history,  origin,  and  nature  of  the  various 
fertilisers  and  manures  in  use  in  this  country,  but  also  with  their  effect  upon 
the  yield  and  quality  of  crops  in  practice.  Much  unpublished  material  has 
been  drawn  from  the  Rothamsted  experiments,  but  other  series  of  field 
experiments  have  also  been  utilised  to  furnish  examples  elucidating  the 
principles  upon  which  manuring  should  be  based.  As  befits  a  book  intended 
for  the  practical  man  as  well  as  the  student  of  agricultural  science,  a  good 
deal  of  attention  is  given  to  the  making,  value,  and  utilisation  of  farmyard 
manure,  while  another  important  chapter  deals  with  the  manuring  of  each  of 
the  staple  crops  of  the  farm,  according  to  the  character  of  the  rotation  in 
which  it  finds  a  place. 



With  Illustrations.     Medium  8vo. 



Square  Demy  8vo. 

This  is  an  attempt  to  analyse  the  "garden  magic"  of  Italy  and  to  lay 
down  new  principles  of  design.  The  Author  is  probably  better  acquainted 
than  any  other  living  Englishman  or  Italian  with  the  old  gardens  of  Italy : 
he  attaches  much  importance  to  the  psychological  side  of  the  problem,  and 
deals  with  the  philosophy  of  beauty  in  a  way  which  will  appeal  to  every 
lover  of  a  garden. 










I  NDE  X 


ALINGTON  —  Partridge 
Driving  8 

AULD  and  KER—Practical  Agri- 
cultural Chemistry 6 

BEAN— Trees  and  Shrubs  Hardy 
in  the  British  Isles  3 

BRACE — The  Culture  of  Fruit 
Trees  in  Pots 5 

BUXTON — Fishing  and  Shooting    8 

CARTWRIGHT— Italian  Gardens 
of  the  Renaissance 4 

CECIL— A  History  of  Gardening 
in  England  5 

CHAYTOR— Letters  to  a  Salmon 
Fisher's  Sons 8 

COLTMAN-ROGERS— Conifers...    3 

CURTIS— The  Small  Garden 
Beautiful  4 

istry of  the  Garden :  a  Course 
of  Practical  Work  6 

FREAM— Elements  of  Agriculture    6 

GASKELL— Spring  in  a  Shrop- 
shire Abbey 


round    the 





GIBBS— A  Cotswold  Village       ... 

HALL— The  Book  of  the  Rotham- 
sted  Experiments 

The  Soil 

Fertilisers  and  Manures 

The  Feeding  of  Crops  and 


Agricul  ture  after  the  War 

A  Pilgrimage  of  British 

Farming  ...         ...     7 

HAYES— A      Handy     Book     of 
Horticulture    ...        ...         ...     4 

HUTCHINSON  — Dog   Breaking    8 
JEFFERIES— The     Gamekeeper 

at  Home  ...  ii 

The     Amateur 

Poacher ii 

JENNINGS— Field     Paths     and 
Green    Lanes  in  Surrey  and 

Sussex ii 

LLOYD— Hints  to  Farm  Pupils      6 


LONG  (H.C.V— Common  Weeds 
of  the  Farm  and  Garden    ...      6 

LONG  ( J.)— The  Small  Farm  and 

its  Management          6 

PARKER — Shooting  Days         ...     8 

PEARSE— The    Kitchen    Garden 
and  the  Cook 5 

RAVENSCROFT— Town  Garden- 
ing       5 

REES— Creatures  of  the  Night  ...   10 

The  Heron  of  Castle  Creek  10 

ROBINSON— The  English  Flower 

Garden    9 

The     Vegetable 

Garden      9 

The  Wild  Garden...     9 

Alpine    Flowers  ...     9 

The  Garden   Beau- 

The  Virgin's  Bower 

Grave tye  Manor  .... 



God's  Acre  Beautiful  9 

JOHN— Wild  Sports  ...     8 

STEBBING— British  Forestry   ...     3 
— . — . — . — . —      Commercial  Forestry  3 

TREGARTHEN— Wild     Life    at 

the  Land's  End  10 

. The  Life  Story 

of  an  Otter    ...   10 

Book  of  Flowers          5 

Vegetable  Garden        ...         (..     9 

WEATHERS— The  Bulb  Book  ...     4 
French    Market 
Gardening  ...     5 

WEBSTER— Hardy    Ornamental 
Flowering    Trees   and    Shrubs     3 

WILLMOTT— The  Genus  Rosa  ... 
WOLSELE  Y-  In  a  College  Gar  den 

Books  on  Horticulture,  Agriculture 
and  Country  Lore. 


BRITISH  ISLES.  By  W.  J.  BEAN,  Assistant  Curator, 
Royal  Botanic  Gardens,  Kew.  "  Here  is  a  book  v/hich  stands 
out  by  itself  as  the  work  of  a  master  of  the  subject.  No  one 
who  cares  for  trees  and  shrubs  can  possibly  do  without  it  .  .  .  . 
a  mass  of  knowledge  and  experience  which  is  unrivalled." 
Mr.  H.  J.  ELWES,  in  Country  Life.  With  over  250  Line 
Drawings  and  64  Half-tone  Illustrations.  Two  Volumes. 
Second  Edition.  485.  net. 


By  CHARLES  COLTMAN-ROGERS.  This  book  is  an 
invaluable  aid  for  students  and  others  in  identifying  the  many 
different  species  of  trees  included  in  the  category  of  the  Natural 
Order  of  the  Coniferae,  and  it  also  gives  in  anecdotal  form  much 
reliable  and  interesting  information  on  their  life-history. 


AND  SHRUBS.  By  A.  D.  WEBSTER.  Author  of  "  Prac- 
tical Forestry,"  etc.  "  We  commend  the  book  on  its  un- 
doubted merits  as  a  reference  work  and  guide."  Journal  of 
Horticulture.  Third  Edition.  5s.  net. 


Head  of  the  Department  of  Forestry,  University  of  Edin- 
burgh. The  need  for  a  national  scheme  of  afforestation  ; 
what  it  will  do  for  the  country  ;  the  necessity  for  the  use  of 
public  funds,  and  the  methods  by  which  the  State  can  obtain 
the  best  return  for  its  outlay,  are  discussed  in  this  book  by  one 
who  is  an  acknowledged  authority  on  the  subject.  With 
Frontispiece.  6s.  net. 


THE  WAR.  By  E.  P.  STEBBING.  "Mr.  Stebbing 
writes  with  authority.  He  puts  the  case  extremely  well,  and 
he  puts  it  with  moderation."  The  Field.  Illustrated.  6s.  net. 


t  k  or,  Bulbous  and  Tuberous  Plants  for  the  Open  Air,  Stove,  and 
Greenhouse.  By  JOHN  WEATHERS.  Containing  particu- 
lars as  to  descriptions,  culture,  propagation,  etc.,  of  plants 

|*  from  all  parts  of  the  world  having  bulbs,  corms,  tubers  or 
rhizomes  (orchids  excluded).  "  Meritorious,  remarkable, 

r  informative  and  accurate,  almost  beyond  criticism  ;  the  most 
complete  bulb  book  of  the  present  day,  and  likely  to  remain 
a  classic."  Journal  of  Horticulture.  Illustrated.  i8s.  net. 


By  A.  C.  CURTIS.  "  Mr.  Curtis  is  both  an  idealist  and  a 
practical  gardener  giving  a  lucid  explanation  of  eminently 
practical  methods."  Westminster  Gazette.  Third  Edition. 

Illustrated.      55.  net. 


By  JULIA  CARTWRIGHT  (Mrs.  Ady).  "  The  studies 
before  us  are  full  of  charm,  and  breathe  the  very  spirit  of  that 
spring-time  of  the  modern  world  when  Europe  awoke  again  to 
the  loveliness  of  Nature."  The  Outlook. 


By  ELLEN  WILLMOTT.  Drawings  by  Alfred  Parsons,  A.R.A. 
With  128  Coloured  Plates  and  56  Drawings  of  Fruits  in  Black 
and  White.  "  The  outcome  of  many  years  of  observation, 
labour  and  study,  this  magnificent  folio  must  take  a  higher 
place  than  any  existing  monograph  of  the  Rose."  The  Garden. 
In  25  Parts.  2is.  net  each. 


An  Introduction  to  the  Theory  and  Practice  of  Gardening. 
By  F.  C.  HAYES,  M.A.,  Lecturer  in  Practical  Horticulture  in 
Alexandra  College,  Dublin.  "  Not  so  big  that  it  need  frighten 
the  ardent  amateur,  nor  so  much  of  a  primer  that  it  may  be 
disdained  by  the  fairly  accomplished  gardener,  it  has  a  good 
scheme."  Daily  Chronicle.  Illustrated.  55.  net. 


By  VISCOUNTESS  WOLSELEY,  Citizen  and  Gardener  of 
London.  "  A  serious  contribution  to  an  important  problem 
[Gardening  for  Women]  as  well  as  being,  for  the  general  reader, 
a  book  of  the  pleasant  garden,  a  book  to  refresh  all  those  who 
have  ever  cast  a  seed  and  waited  for  the  flower."  Saturday 
Review.  Illustrated.  6s.  net. 



By  JOSH  BRACE.  The  result  of  very  many  years'  practical 
experience  of  this  popular  form  of  cultivation.  "  A  valuable 
contribution  to  a  very  interesting  phase  of  fruit-culture." 
The  Field.  With  Illustrations.  Second  Impression.  6s.  net. 

FRENCH  MARKET  GARDENING  :  with  Practical 

Details  cf  Intensive  Cultivation  for  English  Growers.  By 
JOHN  WEATHERS.  With  an  Introduction  by  WILLIAM 
ROBINSON.  "  This  useful  and  interesting  work  deals  with 
every  phrase  of  that  form  of  intensive  culture  known  as  French 
Gardening.  It  is  well  written  and  is  easily  understood.  Fruit, 
Flower  and  Vegetable  Trades'  Journal.  Illustrated.  45.  6d.  net. 


An  Alphabetical  Guide  to  the  Cultivation  of  Vegetables,  with 
Recipes  for  Cooking  them.  By  CECILIA  MARIA  PEARSE 
"  The  most  extensive  ever  published  in  regard  to  the  cookin^ 
of  vegetables."  Aberdeen  Daily  Journal.  45.  6d.  ne  ' 


A  Hand-book  of  Trees,  Shrubs,  and  Plants,  suitable  for  Town 
Culture  in  the  Outdoor  Garden,  Window  Garden,  and  Green- 
house. By  B.  C.  RAVENSCROFT.  \  This  work,  the  result 
of  the  author's  experience  as  a  practical  gardener  in  London 
and  suburbs,  may  be  fully  relied  upon.  Second  Edition. 
Revised  and  Enlarged.  45.  6d.  net. 


"  It  is  so  well-written  that  reading  it  is  a  pleasure.  No  one  can 
read  it  intelligently  and  fail  to  obtain  a  good  idea  of  what 
gardening  in  this  country  has  been  and  is." — The  Field. 
Third  and  Enlarged  Edition.  Illustrated.  153.  net. 


This  book  makes  no  pretence  at  all  to  completeness  or  scientific 
knowledge.  It  is  as  though  one  walked  in  a  garden  or  the 
fields  and  picked  at  random  a  flower  here  and  a  flower  there, 
tying  them  loosely  into  a  bunch.  6s.  net. 



By  JAMES  LONG,  Member  of  the  Small  Holdings  Committee. 
Second  Edition,  thoroughly  revised  throughout  and  brought 
up  to  date. 


By  E.  WALFORD  LLOYD.  An  indispensable  book  for  those 
starting  to  learn  farming  and  anxious  to  pick  up  all  the  infor- 
mation they  can  with  a  view  to  getting  quickly  into  the  business. 
A  PRACTICAL  FARMER  writes  :  "  In  a  general  way  it  is 
very  good,  nor  have  I  read  anything  so  concise  or  with  so  much 
real  sound  stuff  in  it  before."  2s.  6d.  net. 


GARDEN  I  Including  the  Weeds  of  Chief  Importance,  both 
of  Arable  and  Grass  Land,  and  Weed  Seeds.  By  HAROLD 
C.  LONG,  B.Sc.  (Edin.),  of  the  Board  of  Agriculture  and 
Fisheries,  in  collaboration  with  JOHN  PERCIVAL,  M.A., 
F.L.S.,  Director  of  the  Department  of  Horticulture  and  Agri- 
culture, University  College,  Reading.  With  98  Illustrations. 

6s.  net. 


By  W.  FREAM,  LL.D.  A  Text-book  prepared  under  the 
authority  of  the  Royal  Agricultural  Society  of  England. 
Edited  by  J.  R.  Ainsworth-Davis,  M.A.,  Principal  of  the  Royal 
Agricultural  College,  Cirencester.  Tenth  Edition.  Illustrated. 

7s.  6d.  net. 


By  S.  J.  M.  AULD,  D.Sc.,  Ph.D.,  F.I.C.,  F.C.S.,  and  D. 
R.  EDWARDES-KER,  B.A.,  B.Sc.  This  book  is  intended 
as  a  practical  handbook  in  Agricultural  Chemistry,  for  students 
working  through  courses  of  instructions  for  the  London  B.Sc. 
Degree  in  Agriculture,  and  other  examinations  of  a  similar 
type  and  standard.  Illustrated.  6s.  net. 


A  Course  of  Practical  Work  for  Teachers  and  Students  of 
Horticulture,  Gardening  and  Rural  Science.  By  D.  R. 
EDWARDES-KER,  B.A.  (Oxon.),  B.Sc.  (Lond.).  Contents  : 
The  Chemistry  of  Plants — The  Chemistry  of  Soils — The 
Chemistry  of  Manures  and  Fertilisers — The  Chemistry  of 
Sprays  and  Washes — Appendix.  2s.  net. 


By    Sir    A.    D.    HALL,     K.C.B.,    F.R.S., 

Formerly  Director  of   the  Rothamsted   Experimental  Station. 


An  Introduction  to  the  Scientific  Study  of  the  Growth  of 
Crops.  A  new  edition  of  this  standard  work,  thoroughly 
revised  throughout,  and  re-set.  *'  A  remarkably  well-arranged, 
well-written  volume.  In  its  way  it  is  a  masterpiece."  The 
Times.  Third  Edition.  Illustrated.  75.  6d.  net. 


"  He  is  able  to  give  innumerable  practical  notes  on  the  results 
of  experiments  in  manuring,  and  it  is  these  which  we  think  will 
form  the  chief  attraction  to  the  cultivator,  as  the  results  of 
actual  work  on  the  land  do  not  always  coincide  with 
theories  based  on  laboratory  work  alone  ;  a  great  work  for 
Agriculture,  and  for  Horticulture  also."  Horticultural  Adver- 
tiser. Eighth  Impression.  Illustrated.  75.  6d.  net. 


An  Introduction  to  the  Science  of  the  Nutrition  of  Plants 
and  Animals.  "  The  products  of  Sir  Daniel  Hall's  knowledge 
and  experience  are  always  welcome  in  the  manuals  which  come 
from  his  facile  pen,  but  that  now  under  notice  is  expecially  so, 
as  it  is  complementary  to  his  works  on  Soils  and  Manures." 
Agricultural  Economist.  4th  Impression.  Illustrated.  6s.  net. 


"  Small  in  size,  but  great  in  value,  the  work  deserves-  wide 
circulation  and  careful  consideration."  The  Times.  Third 
Impression.  55.  net. 


"  A  marvellously  accurate  and  illuminating  account  of  agri- 
culture. It  must  be  for  some  time  one  of  the  most  valuable 
books  in  the  library  of  English  agricultural  literature." — • 
Home  Counties,  in  the  Daily  Chronicle.  Second  Impre-sion. 

7s.  6d.  net. 


EXPERIMENTS.  Second  Edition  Revised  by  E.  J.  RUSSELL, 
D.Sc..  F.R.S.  Director  of  the  Rothamsted  Experimental  Station. 
Issued  with  the  Authority  of  the  Lawes  Agricultural  Trust  Com- 
mittee. This  new  edition  has  been  brought  up  to  date,  and 
new  chapters  are  added,  discussing  work  carried  out  during 
the  past  ten  years.  123.  net. 



By  Captain  ERIC  PARKER,  Shooting  Editor,  "  The  Field." 
"  He  fondles  the  memory  of  each  satisfactory  shot,  recalls 
every  stone  and  bush,  and  brings  the  scent  of  bog-myrtle,  or 
the  gurgle  of  the  trout-stream,  or  the  tap-tap  of  beaters' 
sticks,  or  the  thrill  of  an  oncoming  covey,  before  the  reader 
with  amazing  vividness.  His  book  will  be  a  treasury  of  real 
delight  not  only  to  every  exiled  and  homesick  sportsman,  but 
to  everyone  who  has  known  the  free  joys  of  moor,  field,  and 
stream."  The  Spectator.  Second  Impression.  75.  6d.  net. 


By  A.  H.  CHAYTOR.  "  We  are  glad  to  welcome  a  new 
edition  of  one  of  the  best  practical  books  on  salmon  fishing  that 
has  ever  been  written."  The  Field.  Second  Edition. 
Illustrated.  I2s.  net. 


By  CHARLES  ST.  JOHN.  With  the  Author's  Notes  and  a 
Memoir  by  the  Rev.  M.  G.  Watkins.  Illustrated.  Ninth 
Impression.  6s.  net. 


By  SYDNEY  BUXTON.  With  Illustrations  by  Archibald 
Thorburn.  "  He  writes  in  so  lucid  and  charming  a  manner, 
that  we  have  not  often  read  a  book  on  fishing  with  greater 
interest."  The  Field.  Second  Edition.  123.  net. 


By  CHARLES  E.  A.  ALINGTON.  Some  practical  hints  on 
increasing  and  preserving  a  stock  of  birds  and  on  bringing 
them  over  the  guns.  With  Diagrams.  6s.  net. 


By  General  W.  N.  HUTCHINSON.  The  most  expeditious, 
certain  and  easy  method.  With  odds  and  ends  fcr  those  who 
love  the  dog  and  gun.  Popular  Edition.  Illustrated. 

73.  6d.  net. 




AND  HOME  GROUNDS.  Design  and  Arrangement 
followed  by  a  Description  of  the  Plants,  Shrubs  and  Trees  for 
the  Open-air  Garden  and  their  Culture.  Illustrated  with 
many  engravings  on  wood.  Twelfth  Edition.  155.  net. 


Illustrations,  Descriptions  and  Culture  of  the  Garden  Vegetables 
of  Cold  and  Temperate  Climates.  By  MM.  VILMORIN- 
ANDRIEUX.  English  Edition  published  under  the  direction 
of  WILLIAM  ROBINSON.  Second  Edition  with  an  Adden- 
dum by  W.  P.  Thomson.  Illustrated.  255.  net. 


PLANTS.  With  a  Chapter  on  the  Garden  of  British  Wild 
Flowers.  Bound  in  Vellum.  Fifth  Edition.  Illustrated. 

I2s.  net. 


Rock,  Wall,  Marsh  Plants,  and  Mountain  Shrubs.  Fourth 
Edition.  Illustrated.  los.  6d.  net. 


Home  Woods  and  Home  Landscapes.  Illustrated  with 
Engravings  on  Wood.  75.  6d.  net. 


Clematis :  Climbing  Kinds  and  their  Culture  at  Gravetye 
Manor.  Illustrated.  33.  6d.  net. 


ROUND  AN   OLD  MANOR   HOUSE.        Being  an  Abstract 
from  the  Tree  and  Garden  Book  of  Gravetye  Manor,  Sussex, 
kept  by  the  Owner.     Folio.     Illustrated. 
Bound  in  Vellum.     £3  35.  od.  net ;     Paper,  £2   125.  6d.  net. 


OF  THE  FUTURE.  Illustrated.     6s.  net. 


THE    HERON     OF     CASTLE     CREEK:     AND 

Author  of  "  lanto  the  Fisherman,"  etc.  With  a  Memoir  of  the 
Author,  by  J.  K.  Hudson.  Mr.  Rees'  previous  volumes  of 
Nature  Studies  won  him  a  place  which  was  all  his  own  in  the 
great  succession  of  writers  who  have  made  nature  their  theme. 
This  book  consists  of  a  series  of  studies  of  Bird  Life,  and  also 
chapters  on  Bird  Watching  and  Animal  Life  in  Winter.  With 
Portrait.  ys.  6d.  net 


A  book  of  Wild  Life  in  Western  Britain.  By  A.  W.  REES. 
"  No  one  with  a  love  of  wild  creatures  can  resist  the  charm  of 
such  a  work,  every  page  of  which  shows  knowledge,  insight, 
and  sympathy  ;  a  fascinating  work." — Daily  Telegraph.  Illus- 
trated. 73.  6d.  net. 


By  J.  ARTHUR  GIBBS.  With  a  Portrait  of  the  author  and 
other  Illustrations.  "  It  is  a  delightful  work."  Pall  Mall 
Gazette.  "  It  has  been  a  real  pleasure  to  read  it."  The 
Guardian.  Ninth  Impression.  6s.  net. 

WILD    LIFE    AT    THE    LAND'S    END. 

By  J.  C.  TREGARTHEN.  Records  and  Observations  of  the 
Habits  and  Haunts  of  the  Fox,  Badger,  Otter,  Seal,  etc.,  and 
of  their  Pursuers  in  Cornwall.  "  We  should  say  that  his  book 
has  all  the  charm  of  the  best  conversation,  of  a  sportsman 
of  the  old  school,  mingled  with  that  of  a  gamekeeper  and  a 
poacher,  men  who  knew  the  night  as  well  as  they  knew  the 
day,  a  man  as  well  as  a  fox."— Daily  Chronicle.  Illustrated. 

I2s.  net. 

THE    LIFE    STORY    OF    AN    OTTER. 

By  J.    C.  TREGARTHEN.      "  The   book    is    one    in     which 

•    naturalists  will  especially  rejoice,    because  they  will  find  what 

cannot  be  found  elsewhere  ;    but  there  is  no  class  of  reader 

above  the  age  of  twelve  who  would  not  find  satisfaction  in  this 

.    speaking  descr'ption  of  Western   scenery  and  graphic  tale  of 

the   most   mysterious   of  its    denizens." — Times.     Illustrated. 

5$.  net. 



By  RICHARD  JEFFERIES.  "  Delightful  sketches.  The 
lover  of  the  country  can  hardly  fail  to  be  fascinated  where ve: 
he  may  happen  to  open  the  pages.  It  is  a  book  to  read  and 
keep  for  reference,  and  should  be  on  the  shelves  of  every 
country  gentleman's  library." — Saturday  Review.  Illustrated. 

6s.  net. 


By  RICHARD  JEFFERIES.  "  We  have  rarely  met  with  a 
book  in  which  so  much  that  is  entertaining  is  combined 
with  matter  of  real  practical  worth." — Graphic.  6s.  net. 


By  Lady  C.  MILNES  GASKELL.     "A  beautifully  illustrated 

book,    half   garden   book  and    the    rambling    thoughts    of   a 

.   cultivated  woman,    half    fiction    and    Shropshire  folklore."— 

Evening  Standard.  Illustrated.     los.  6d.  net. 


By  Lady  C.  MILNES  GASKELL.  A  further  collection  of 
history  and  legend,  garden  lore  and  character  study,  such 
as  was  gathered  up  in  the  former  volume,  "  Spring  in  a 
Shropshire  Abbey."  Illustrated.  los.  6d.  net 


By  LOUIS  J.  JENNINGS.  This  book  will  be  found  inter- 
esting, and  in  some  degree  useful,  to  those  who  find  an  unfailing 
source  of  pleasure  in  wandering  over  England,  deeming  nothing 
unworthy  of  notice,  whether  it  be  an  ancient  church  or  home- 
stead, a  grand  old  tree,  a  wild  flower  under  a  hedge,  or  a  stray 
rustic  by  the  roadside.  It  is  a  genuine  account  of  personal 
experiences  recorded,  as  a  rule,  on  the  very  day  they  occurred: 
Fifth  Edition.  Illustrated.  6s.  net. 


CORNHILL      1/6  net 


Edited  by  LEONARD  HUXLEY. 

"  Can  a  magazine  have  a  soul  ?  In  turning  over  the  pages 
of  the  hundred  volumes  of  the  'Cornhill,1  I  have  been  on 
the  search,  and  I  believe  I  have  found  it.  ...  The  range 
of  subjects  is  very  wide,  the  methods  of  treatment  are 
infinitely  various.  Politics  and  public  affairs  have  for  the 
most  part  been  avoided,  though  the  fringe  of  them  is  often 
touched.  .  .  .  The  '  note  '  of  the  *  Cornhill '  is  the  literary 
note,  in  the  widest  sense  of  the  term  ;  its  soul  is  the  spirit 
of  that  human  culture,  as  Matthew  Arnold  describes  it  in 
the  pages,  reprinted  from  the  *  Cornhill/  of  *  Culture  and 
Anarchy.'  "—SIR  E.  T.  COOK. 


"  I  find  upon  inquiry  at  our  five  Libraries  that  the  '  Cornhill '  is  well 
read,  and  certainly  it  appeals  to  a  section  of  readers  who  can  appreciate 
better  literary  fare*than  is  offered  in  most  of  the  modern  monthlies.  May 
I  take  this  opportunity  of  expressing  my  own  admiration  for  the  high 
literary  tone  which  you  preserve  in  the  '  Cornhill.'  " 

"  My  Committee  are  of  opinion  that  there  is  room  for  one  of  its  kind* 
(Personally,  I  think  there  is  only  one  of  the  '  Cornhill'  kind,  and  that  is 
the  '  Cornhill '  itself.)  I  may  say  at  once  that  the  '  Cornhill '  exactly  meets 
the  wants  of  a  select  body  of  readers." 

"  It  is  one  of  the  few  magazines  of  which  a  complete  set  is  kept  in  stock 
for  the  benefit  of  borrowers." 


"  Cornhill  is  in  a  class  by  itself  and  is  full  of  the  most  entertaining  reading 
with  real  literary  flavour."— Liverpool  Courier. 

"  The  counsel  of  perfection  is  to  purchase  the  '  Cornhill/  that  you  may 
not  only  enjoy  its  contents  but  keep  them  to  show  a  friend." — Guardian. 

"Those  of  us  who  are  not  in  the  habit  of  reading  the  magazine  will  be 
well  advised  to  repair  the  omission." — Oxford  Magazine. 

THE  "CORNHILL"  can  be  obtained  of  all  Booksellers  and  Newsagents, 
price  Is.  Qd.  net  monthly.  The  Subscription  for  a  year,  including  postage, 
is  20s.  6d.  (Canada  20s.) 

RETURN  TO  the  circulation  desk  of  any 
University  of  California  Library 
or  to  the 

Bldg.  400,  Richmond  Field  Station 
University  of  California 
Richmond,  CA  94804-4698 

2-month  loans  may  be  renewed  by  calling 

1-year  loans  may  be  recharged  by  bringing  books 

to  NFtLF 
Renewals  and  recharges  may  be  made  4  days 

prior  to  due  date 


JUL  16 

?  0 

YB  4758!